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The alcohol paradox: light-to-moderate alcohol consumption, cognitive function, and brain volume.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259852
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Dec;69(12):1528-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Benjamin J K Davis
Jean-Sebastian Vidal
Melissa Garcia
Thor Aspelund
Mark A van Buchem
Maria K Jonsdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Tamara B Harris
Vilmundur Gudnason
Lenore J Launer
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Dec;69(12):1528-35
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Brain - pathology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Prevalence
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Studies of older persons show consumption of light-to-moderate amounts of alcohol is positively associated with cognitive function and, separately, is negatively associated with total brain volume (TBV). This is paradoxical as generally, cognitive function is positively associated with TBV. We examined the relationships of TBV, global cognitive function (GCF), and alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort of 3,363 men and women (b. 1907-1935) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006) and who were free of dementia or mild cognitive impairment
Drinking status (never, former, and current) and current amount of alcohol consumed were assessed by questionnaire. GCF is a composite score derived from a battery of cognitive tests. TBV, standardized to head size, is estimated quantitatively from brain magnetic resonance imaging.
Among women and not men, adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, current drinkers had significantly higher GCF scores than abstainers and former drinkers (p
PubMed ID
24994845 View in PubMed
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Anxiety, depression, and 1-year incident cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132631
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Aug;59(8):1421-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Olivier Potvin
Hélène Forget
Sébastien Grenier
Michel Préville
Carol Hudon
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. Olivier.Potvin@crulrg.ulaval.ca
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Aug;59(8):1421-8
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Geriatric Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Independent Living - psychology
Male
Mental Status Schedule - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Quebec
Abstract
To examine in men and women the independent associations between anxiety and depression and 1-year incident cognitive impairment and to examine the association of cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and incident cognitive impairment with 1-year incident anxiety or depression.
Prospective cohort study.
General community.
Population-based sample of 1,942 individuals aged 65 to 96.
Two structured interviews 12 months apart evaluated anxiety and mood symptoms and disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as no CIND at baseline and a follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination score at least 2 points below baseline and below the 15th percentile according to normative data. The associations between cognitive impairment and anxiety or depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
Incident cognitive impairment was, independently of depression, associated with baseline anxiety disorders in men (odds ratio (OR)=6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-28.29) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=2.14, 95%=1.06-4.34). Moreover, the results indicated that depression disorders in men (OR=8.87, 95%=2.13-36.96) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=4.31, 95%=1.74-10.67) were particularly linked to incident amnestic cognitive impairment, whereas anxiety disorders in men (OR=12.01, 95%=1.73-83.26) were especially associated with incident nonamnestic cognitive impairment. CIND at baseline and incident cognitive impairment were not associated with incident anxiety or depression.
Anxiety and depression appear to have different relationships with incident cognitive impairment according to sex and the nature of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should pay particular attention to anxiety in older adults because it may shortly be followed by incident cognitive treatment.
PubMed ID
21797836 View in PubMed
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The association between depressive and cognitive symptoms in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157844
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 2008 Aug;20(4):710-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Carol Hudon
Sylvie Belleville
Serge Gauthier
Author Affiliation
Ecole de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. carol.hudon@psy.ulaval.ca
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 2008 Aug;20(4):710-23
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Amnesia - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Attention
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)
Male
Mass Screening
Memory, Short-Term
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests - statistics & numerical data
Problem Solving
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Reproducibility of Results
Retention (Psychology)
Verbal Learning
Abstract
Depressive symptoms are frequently observed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, little is known regarding the cognitive characteristics of this important subgroup.
We examined executive functions (controlled inhibition) and verbal episodic memory in 33 healthy older adults (control group), 18 older adults with amnestic MCI plus subclinical depressive symptoms (a-MCI/D+ group), and 26 older adults with amnestic MCI but no depressive symptoms (a-MCI group).
Compared to the a-MCI and control groups, patients with a-MCI/D+ showed poor controlled inhibition. Moreover, in verbal episodic memory these patients recalled fewer words than control participants on immediate free, delayed free, and delayed total (free plus cued) recall. Performance on immediate recall suggested a self-retrieval deficit, but delayed performance also revealed the existence of an encoding impairment. In the a-MCI group, participants exhibited normal performance on the executive task, but pervasive memory impairment; the memory deficit concerned free and total recall on both immediate and delayed tasks, suggesting the existence of encoding and self-retrieval disturbances.
This study reveals differences between the pattern of cognitive impairment for a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI subgroups particularly at the level of executive capacities. In terms of memory functioning, the differences between the subgroups were more subtle; more studies are needed in order to better characterize the memory impairment of a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI patients.
PubMed ID
18397547 View in PubMed
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Associations between birth characteristics and age-related cognitive impairment and dementia: A registry-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299338
Source
PLoS Med. 2018 07; 15(7):e1002609
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Date
07-2018
Author
Miriam A Mosing
Cecilia Lundholm
Sven Cnattingius
Margaret Gatz
Nancy L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
PLoS Med. 2018 07; 15(7):e1002609
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Birth weight
Cephalometry
Cognition
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cognitive Aging
Dementia - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Gestational Age
Head - anatomy & histology
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
There is evidence for long-lasting effects of birth characteristics on cognitive ability in childhood and adulthood. Further, low cognitive ability throughout the lifetime has been linked to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. However, little is known about the effects of birth characteristics on cognitive dysfunction late in life. Here we explore potential associations between birth characteristics (weight, head circumference, length, and gestational age), adjusted and not adjusted for gestational age, and cognitive impairment and dementia late in life.
Data from twins in the Swedish Twin Registry born 1926-1960 were merged with information from the Swedish birth, patient, and cause of death registries, resulting in a sample of 35,191 individuals. A subsample of 4,000 twins aged 65 years and older also participated in a telephone cognitive screening in 1998-2002. Associations of birth characteristics with registry-based dementia diagnoses and on telephone-assessed cognitive impairment were investigated in the full sample and subsample, respectively. The full sample contained 907 (2.6%) individuals with a dementia diagnosis (an incidence rate of 5.9% per 100,000 person-years), 803 (2.4%) individuals born small for gestational age, and 929 (2.8%) individuals born with a small head for gestational age. The subsample contained 569 (14.2%) individuals with cognitive impairment. Low birth weight for gestational age and being born with a small head for gestational age were significant risk factors for cognitive dysfunction late in life, with an up to 2-fold risk increase (p
PubMed ID
30020924 View in PubMed
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138445
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:112
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Ylva Ginsberg
Tatja Hirvikoski
Nils Lindefors
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. ylva.ginsberg@ki.se
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:112
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Criminal Law - statistics & numerical data
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Executive Function - physiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Neuropsychological Tests
Prevalence
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls.
At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls.
The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups.
This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders, such as SUD, ASD, personality disorders, mood- and anxiety disorders, severely affected prison inmates with ADHD. Besides, inmates showed poorer executive functions also when controlling for estimated IQ compared with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and controls. Our findings imply the need for considering these severities when designing treatment programmes for prison inmates with ADHD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21176203 View in PubMed
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The Chornobyl accident and cognitive functioning: a follow-up study of infant evacuees at age 19 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86050
Source
Psychol Med. 2008 Apr;38(4):489-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Taormina D P
Rozenblatt S.
Guey L T
Gluzman S F
Carlson G A
Havenaar J M
Zakhozha V.
Kotov R.
Bromet E J
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
Source
Psychol Med. 2008 Apr;38(4):489-97
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attention - radiation effects
Attitude to Health
Brain - radiation effects
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Child
Child, Preschool
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Intelligence - radiation effects
Learning Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Male
Memory Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Mental Recall - radiation effects
Neuropsychological Tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Radiation Injuries - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Ukraine
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The cognitive and academic outcomes of infants exposed to radiation after the meltdown at Chornobyl have been intensely debated. Western-based investigations indicate that no adverse effects occurred, but local studies reported increased cognitive impairments in exposed compared with non-exposed children. Our initial study found that at age 11 years, school grades and neuropsychological performance were similar in 300 children evacuated to Kiev as infants or in utero compared with 300 classmate controls, yet more evacuee mothers believed that their children had memory problems. This study re-examined the children's performance and academic achievement at age 19 years.METHOD: In 2005-2006, we conducted an 8-year follow-up of the evacuees (n=265) and classmate controls (n=261) assessed in Kiev in 1997. Outcomes included university attendance, tests of intelligence, attention, and memory, and subjective appraisals of memory problems. Scores were standardized using a local population-based control group (n=327). Analyses were stratified by parental education. RESULTS: Evacuees and classmates performed similarly and in the normal range on all tests, and no differential temporal changes were found. The results were comparable for the in utero subsample. The rates of university attendance and self-reported memory problems were also similar. Nevertheless, the evacuee mothers were almost three times as likely to report that their children had memory problems compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Chornobyl did not influence the cognitive functioning of exposed infants although more evacuee mothers still believed that their offspring had memory problems. These lingering worries reflect a wider picture of persistent health concerns as a consequence of the accident.
PubMed ID
18177528 View in PubMed
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Cognitive ability and decline after early life stress exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117065
Source
Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jun;34(6):1674-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Anu-Katriina Pesonen
Johan G Eriksson
Kati Heinonen
Eero Kajantie
Soile Tuovinen
Hanna Alastalo
Markus Henriksson
Jukka Leskinen
Clive Osmond
David J P Barker
Katri Räikkönen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jun;34(6):1674-9
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Cognition - physiology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Stress, Psychological - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
We examined the effects of early life stress on cognitive ability and decline among men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 10% of whom were separated temporarily (mean age at separation = 4.1 years) from their parent(s) during World War II. The men underwent the Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test twice, at 20 years and retest at 70 years. Compared with the men without childhood separation and matched for year of birth (n = 186), men separated from their parents (n = 93) scored lower by 5.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.2 to -1.7), 4.2 (95% CI, -8.1 to -0.3), 3.1 (95% CI, -7.0 to 0.8), and 4.5 (95% CI, -10.5 to -1.4) standardized points (SD = 15) on verbal, visuospatial, arithmetic, and general cognitive ability, respectively, at 70 years. Longer duration of separation was associated with lower test scores. Though early life stress was also associated significantly with weaker cognitive performance at the ages 20 and 70 years, it was not associated with cognitive decline over the 50-year period within this sample.
PubMed ID
23337341 View in PubMed
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Cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults with a history of non-psychotic unipolar depressive disorders without psychiatric comorbidity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158742
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Sep;110(1-2):36-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
A E Castaneda
J. Suvisaari
M. Marttunen
J. Perälä
S I Saarni
T. Aalto-Setälä
H. Aro
S. Koskinen
J. Lönnqvist
A. Tuulio-Henriksson
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. anu.castaneda@ktl.fi
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Sep;110(1-2):36-45
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Control Groups
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests - statistics & numerical data
Patient Dropouts
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
There is evidence for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression among middle-aged and elderly patients, but cognitive functioning among depressed young adults has scarcely been systematically investigated. The aims of the present study were to examine cognitive functioning among depressed young adults identified from the general population and to determine whether cognitive deficits vary as a function of different disorder characteristics, such as severity and age at onset.
Performance in verbal and visual short-term memory, verbal long-term memory and learning, attention, processing speed, and executive functioning was compared between a population-based sample of 21-35-year-olds with a lifetime history of non-psychotic unipolar depressive disorders without psychiatric comorbidity (n=68) and healthy controls derived from the same population (n=70).
Depressed young adults were not found to be impaired in any of the assessed cognitive functions, except for some suggestion of mildly compromised verbal learning. Nevertheless, younger age at depression onset was associated with more impaired executive functioning.
The results may slightly underestimate of the true association between depression and cognitive impairments in the young adult population due to possible dropout of participants. Additionally, the problem of multiple testing was not entirely corrected.
The findings from this study indicate that a lifetime history of non-psychotic unipolar depressive disorders among young adults without psychiatric comorbidity may be associated only with minimal cognitive deficits, even when some residual depressive symptoms are prevalent. However, early-onset depression may represent a more severe form of the disorder, associated with more cognitive dysfunction.
PubMed ID
18279972 View in PubMed
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Cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults with anxiety disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142202
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;26(6):346-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
A E Castaneda
J. Suvisaari
M. Marttunen
J. Perälä
S I Saarni
T. Aalto-Setälä
J. Lönnqvist
A. Tuulio-Henriksson
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. anu.castaneda@thl.fi
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;26(6):346-53
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Attention
Cognition
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Executive Function
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Memory
Neuropsychological Tests
Psychomotor Performance
Reaction Time
Abstract
Cognitive functioning in anxiety disorders has received little investigation, particularly among young adults and in non-clinical samples. The present study examined cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults with anxiety disorders in comparison to healthy peers.
A population-based sample of 21-35-year-olds with a lifetime history of anxiety disorders (n=75) and a random sample of healthy controls (n=71) derived from the same population were compared in terms of performance in neuropsychological tests measuring verbal and visual short-term memory, verbal long-term memory, attention, psychomotor processing speed, and executive functioning.
In general, young adults with anxiety disorders did not have major cognitive impairments when compared to healthy peers. When participants with anxiety disorder in remission were excluded, persons with current anxiety disorder scored lower in visual working memory tests. Current psychotropic medication use and low current psychosocial functioning associated with deficits in executive functioning, psychomotor processing speed, and visual short-term memory.
Lifetime history of anxiety disorders is not associated with cognitive impairment among young adults in the general population. However, among persons with anxiety disorders, current psychotropic medication use and low psychosocial functioning, indicating more severe symptoms, may associate with cognitive impairments.
PubMed ID
20627469 View in PubMed
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Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46308
Source
Psychol Med. 1998 Sep;28(5):1027-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
L V Kessing
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Psychol Med. 1998 Sep;28(5):1027-38
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Ambulatory Care
Bipolar Disorder - diagnosis - psychology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Recurrence
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
BACKGROUND: A review of studies of cognition in the euthymic phase of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder reveals diverging results. METHODS: The study was designed as a controlled cohort study, with the Danish psychiatric case register of admissions used to identify patients and the Danish civil register to identify controls. Patients who were hospitalized between 19 and 25 years ago with an affective diagnosis and who at interviews fulfilled criteria for a primary affective unipolar or bipolar disorder, according to ICD-10, were compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Interviews and assessment of the cognitive function were made in the euthymic phase of the disorder. In all, 118 unipolar patients, 28 bipolar patients and 58 controls were included. Analyses were adjusted for differences in the level of education and for subclinical depressive and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Patients with recurrent episodes were significantly more impaired than patients with a single episode and more impaired than controls. Also, within patients the number of prior episodes seemed to be associated with cognitive outcome. There was no difference in the severity of the dysfunction between unipolar and bipolar patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment in out-patients with unipolar and bipolar disorder appears to be associated with the number of affective episodes.
PubMed ID
9794010 View in PubMed
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42 records – page 1 of 5.