ADHD is reported as a frequent comorbidity in pediatric epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the prevalence of ADHD, its neurological correlates and the role of ADHD in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with severe epilepsy.
Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) from 203 children (mean age = 11.8, SD=3.8) from a tertiary center serving children with severe epilepsy were reviewed.
Inattention was frequently elevated in the sample (40% vs. 18% for hyperactivity-impulsivity). Age of onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency were not related to severity of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Over 60% of children met screening criteria for ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) or ADHD-Combined Inattentive/Hyperactive-Impulsive subtype (ADHD-C). Compared to ADHD-I, ADHD-C was associated with earlier onset of seizures, generalized epilepsy, lower adaptive level, and in normally developing children, a higher degree of intractability compared to ADHD-I. ADHD-I was more prevalent in localization-related epilepsy, and there was a trend for a higher use of AEDs with cognitive side effects in this group. ADHD was associated with poor HRQOL: children with ADHD-I and ADHD-C had a two- and four-fold likelihood of low HRQOL, respectively, compared to non-ADHD children.
Children seen at tertiary care centers for severe epilepsy are at high risk for attention problems and ADHD, and ADHD is a significant predictor of poor HRQOL in epilepsy, particularly in the case of ADHD-C. ADHD occurring in the context of severe epilepsy appears to be associated with specific neurological characteristics, which has implications for comorbidity models of ADHD and epilepsy.
Studies of older persons show consumption of light-to-moderate amounts of alcohol is positively associated with cognitive function and, separately, is negatively associated with total brain volume (TBV). This is paradoxical as generally, cognitive function is positively associated with TBV. We examined the relationships of TBV, global cognitive function (GCF), and alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort of 3,363 men and women (b. 1907-1935) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006) and who were free of dementia or mild cognitive impairment
Drinking status (never, former, and current) and current amount of alcohol consumed were assessed by questionnaire. GCF is a composite score derived from a battery of cognitive tests. TBV, standardized to head size, is estimated quantitatively from brain magnetic resonance imaging.
Among women and not men, adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, current drinkers had significantly higher GCF scores than abstainers and former drinkers (p
To examine in men and women the independent associations between anxiety and depression and 1-year incident cognitive impairment and to examine the association of cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and incident cognitive impairment with 1-year incident anxiety or depression.
Prospective cohort study.
Population-based sample of 1,942 individuals aged 65 to 96.
Two structured interviews 12 months apart evaluated anxiety and mood symptoms and disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as no CIND at baseline and a follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination score at least 2 points below baseline and below the 15th percentile according to normative data. The associations between cognitive impairment and anxiety or depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
Incident cognitive impairment was, independently of depression, associated with baseline anxiety disorders in men (odds ratio (OR)=6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-28.29) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=2.14, 95%=1.06-4.34). Moreover, the results indicated that depression disorders in men (OR=8.87, 95%=2.13-36.96) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=4.31, 95%=1.74-10.67) were particularly linked to incident amnestic cognitive impairment, whereas anxiety disorders in men (OR=12.01, 95%=1.73-83.26) were especially associated with incident nonamnestic cognitive impairment. CIND at baseline and incident cognitive impairment were not associated with incident anxiety or depression.
Anxiety and depression appear to have different relationships with incident cognitive impairment according to sex and the nature of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should pay particular attention to anxiety in older adults because it may shortly be followed by incident cognitive treatment.
The association of self-reported subclinical depressive symptoms and negative mood states with cognitive functioning was evaluated in 51 consecutive newly diagnosed adult persons with epilepsy.
Emotional state was assessed with Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Brief Depression Scale (BDS) and was correlated with a battery of neuropsychological tests.
Patients with epilepsy reported more depressive symptoms in BDS than in controls. They also had more feeling of bewilderment and less vigor on POMS. Higher scores in BDS and in POMS inefficiency scale were associated with slower nondominant hand tapping, but emotional state did not correlate with cognitive measures within the epilepsy group.
Self-reported symptoms of depression and negative mood states were not extensively or significantly associated with cognitive function, and they do not explain the cognitive impairments observed in cognition in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy.
The article introduces the Parental Sensitivity Assessment Scale (PSAS) and examines the influence of the PSAS score and other factors on the general cognitive level in pre-school children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). McCarthy general cognitive index (GCI) was obtained for 102 VLBW and 92 normal birth weight (NBW) control children in Denmark in the mid-1980s. The mean ages of the two groups were 52.4 vs. 53.1 months. Parental sensitivity was assessed using PSAS. There was no significant difference in the mean PSAS score between the two birth weight groups (p > 0.3). Birth weight group (p 0.5) - the prematurely born children were not more affected by low parental sensitivity than were the control children.
Depressive symptoms are frequently observed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, little is known regarding the cognitive characteristics of this important subgroup.
We examined executive functions (controlled inhibition) and verbal episodic memory in 33 healthy older adults (control group), 18 older adults with amnestic MCI plus subclinical depressive symptoms (a-MCI/D+ group), and 26 older adults with amnestic MCI but no depressive symptoms (a-MCI group).
Compared to the a-MCI and control groups, patients with a-MCI/D+ showed poor controlled inhibition. Moreover, in verbal episodic memory these patients recalled fewer words than control participants on immediate free, delayed free, and delayed total (free plus cued) recall. Performance on immediate recall suggested a self-retrieval deficit, but delayed performance also revealed the existence of an encoding impairment. In the a-MCI group, participants exhibited normal performance on the executive task, but pervasive memory impairment; the memory deficit concerned free and total recall on both immediate and delayed tasks, suggesting the existence of encoding and self-retrieval disturbances.
This study reveals differences between the pattern of cognitive impairment for a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI subgroups particularly at the level of executive capacities. In terms of memory functioning, the differences between the subgroups were more subtle; more studies are needed in order to better characterize the memory impairment of a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI patients.
Apgar score is used for rapid assessment of newborns. Low five-minute Apgar score has been associated with increased risk of severe neurologic outcome, but data on milder outcomes, particularly in the long term, are limited. We aimed to examine the association of five-minute Apgar score with prevalence of neurologic disability and with cognitive function in early adulthood.
We conducted a prevalence study among draft-liable men born in Denmark in 1978-1983 and presenting for the mandatory army evaluation in a northern Danish conscription district. We linked records of this evaluation, which includes medical exam and intelligence testing, with the conscripts' records in the Medical Birth Registry, containing perinatal data. We examined prevalence of neurologic disability and of low cognitive function according to five-minute Apgar score.
Less than 1% (136/19,559) of the conscripts had 5-minute Apgar scores
There is evidence for long-lasting effects of birth characteristics on cognitive ability in childhood and adulthood. Further, low cognitive ability throughout the lifetime has been linked to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. However, little is known about the effects of birth characteristics on cognitive dysfunction late in life. Here we explore potential associations between birth characteristics (weight, head circumference, length, and gestational age), adjusted and not adjusted for gestational age, and cognitive impairment and dementia late in life.
Data from twins in the Swedish Twin Registry born 1926-1960 were merged with information from the Swedish birth, patient, and cause of death registries, resulting in a sample of 35,191 individuals. A subsample of 4,000 twins aged 65 years and older also participated in a telephone cognitive screening in 1998-2002. Associations of birth characteristics with registry-based dementia diagnoses and on telephone-assessed cognitive impairment were investigated in the full sample and subsample, respectively. The full sample contained 907 (2.6%) individuals with a dementia diagnosis (an incidence rate of 5.9% per 100,000 person-years), 803 (2.4%) individuals born small for gestational age, and 929 (2.8%) individuals born with a small head for gestational age. The subsample contained 569 (14.2%) individuals with cognitive impairment. Low birth weight for gestational age and being born with a small head for gestational age were significant risk factors for cognitive dysfunction late in life, with an up to 2-fold risk increase (p
Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100 nonexposed children from another town of the Russian Federation. All children were tested using nonverbal neuropsychological measures of attention, memory, and visual-spatial performance. Predisaster traumatic events and terrorism-related exposure factors were evaluated. Findings revealed that overall, directly and indirectly exposed children performed significantly less well than controls in all domains. In addition, direct exposure and loss of a family member were associated with poor memory performance.
ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls.
At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls.
The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups.
This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders, such as SUD, ASD, personality disorders, mood- and anxiety disorders, severely affected prison inmates with ADHD. Besides, inmates showed poorer executive functions also when controlling for estimated IQ compared with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and controls. Our findings imply the need for considering these severities when designing treatment programmes for prison inmates with ADHD.
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