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Beverage caffeine intakes in young children in Canada and the US.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168912
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2006;67(2):96-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Carol A Knight
Ian Knight
Diane C Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Knight International, Chicago, IL, USA.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2006;67(2):96-9
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Beverages - statistics & numerical data
Caffeine - administration & dosage - analysis
Canada
Carbonated Beverages - analysis
Central Nervous System Stimulants - administration & dosage - analysis
Child, Preschool
Coffee - chemistry
Diet Surveys
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Tea - chemistry
United States
Abstract
Throughout childhood there is a shift from predominantly milk-based beverage consumption to other types of beverages, including those containing caffeine. Although a variety of health effects in children and adults have been attributed to caffeine, few data exist on caffeine intake in children aged one to five years.
Because beverages provide about 80% of total caffeine consumed in children of this age group, beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes were evaluated from two beverage marketing surveys: the 2001 Canadian Facts study and the 1999 United States Share of Intake Panel study.
Considerably fewer Canadian children than American children consume caffeinated beverages (36% versus 56%); Canadian children consume approximately half the amount of caffeine (7 versus 14 mg/day in American children). Differences were largely because of higher intakes of carbonated soft drinks in the US.
Caffeine intakes from caffeinated beverages remain well within safe levels for consumption by young children.
PubMed ID
16759437 View in PubMed
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Caffeine and risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17161
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;81(3):578-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Lars Frost
Peter Vestergaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. Lars.Frost@as.aaa.dk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;81(3):578-82
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology - etiology
Atrial Flutter - epidemiology - etiology
Cacao - chemistry
Caffeine - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Carbonated Beverages - analysis
Coffee - chemistry
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet Surveys
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Tea - chemistry
Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the consumption of caffeine is associated with excess risk of atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in association with daily consumption of caffeine from coffee, tea, cola, cocoa, and chocolate. DESIGN: We prospectively examined the association between the amount of caffeine consumed per day and the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter among 47 949 participants (x age: 56 y) in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Subjects were followed in the Danish National Registry of Patients and in the Danish Civil Registration System. The consumption of caffeine was analyzed by quintiles with Cox proportional-hazard models. RESULTS: During follow-up (x: 5.7 y), atrial fibrillation or flutter developed in 555 subjects (373 men and 182 women). When the lowest quintile of caffeine consumption was used as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 1.12 (0.87, 1.44), 0.85 (0.65, 1.12), 0.92 (0.71, 1.20), and 0.91 (0.70, 1.19), respectively. CONCLUSION: Consumption of caffeine was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;81(3):539-4015755819
PubMed ID
15755825 View in PubMed
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Source
Duodecim. 2013;129(13):1398-405
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Author Affiliation
Tonava-yliopisto Krems, Center for Vascular Prevention, Krems, Itävalta Helsingin yliopisto, Hjelt-instituutti, kansanterveystieteen osasto.
Source
Duodecim. 2013;129(13):1398-405
Date
2013
Language
Finnish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Coffee - chemistry
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Mortality - trends
Polyphenols - pharmacology
Abstract
The coffee bean contains over 2000 chemical compounds, the health effects of which are known only to a limited extent. Previous coffee researchers and laymen focused solely on caffeine and its positive effect on mental alertness. Other ingredients in coffee, especially its polyphenols, also have an influence on our health. In Finland, coffee is the source of more than half of the so-called antioxidants that are thought to be important for health. Coffee drinkers have lower mortality and morbidity rates than non-drinkers in respect of many common chronic diseases.
PubMed ID
23901742 View in PubMed
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Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of severe depression in middle-aged Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144538
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Aug;13(8):1215-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Anu Ruusunen
Soili M Lehto
Tommi Tolmunen
Jaakko Mursu
George A Kaplan
Sari Voutilainen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio Campus, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. anu.ruusunen@uku.fi
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Aug;13(8):1215-20
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Caffeine - therapeutic use
Camellia sinensis
Coffee - chemistry
Cohort Studies
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts - therapeutic use
Risk factors
Tea
Abstract
Only a few cross-sectional studies have assessed the association between coffee, tea and caffeine and the risk of depression. Our aim was to determine the association in a population-based cohort study.
The population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort was recruited between 1984 and 1989 and followed until the end of 2006. We investigated the association between the intake of coffee, tea and caffeine and depression.
Eastern Finland.
Middle-aged men (n 2232).
Altogether, forty-nine men received a discharge diagnosis of depression. We classified subjects into quartiles according to their mean daily coffee intake: non-drinkers (n 82), light drinkers (813 ml/d, n 390). Heavy drinkers had a decreased risk (RR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.08, 0.98) for depression when compared with non-drinkers, after adjustment for age and examination years. Further adjustment for socio-economic status, alcohol consumption, smoking, maximal oxygen uptake, BMI and the energy-adjusted daily intakes of folate and PUFA did not attenuate this association (relative risk (RR) = 0.23, 95 % CI 0.06, 0.83). No associations were observed between depression and intake of tea (drinkers v. non-drinkers; RR = 1.19, 95 % CI 0.54, 2.23) or caffeine (highest quartile v. lowest quartile; RR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.40, 2.45).
Coffee consumption may decrease the risk of depression, whereas no association was found for tea and caffeine intake.
PubMed ID
20359377 View in PubMed
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Effect of the post-harvest processing procedure on OTA occurrence in artificially contaminated coffee.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173798
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2005 Sep 15;103(3):339-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2005
Author
Mirna Suarez-Quiroz
Oscar Gonzalez-Rios
Michel Barel
Bernard Guyot
Sabine Schorr-Galindo
Joseph-Pierre Guiraud
Author Affiliation
UMR-IR2B (ENSAM/INRA/UM2), cc023, Université Montpellier II, Place, Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2005 Sep 15;103(3):339-45
Date
Sep-15-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aspergillus niger - metabolism
Aspergillus ochraceus - metabolism
Coffee - chemistry - microbiology
Food contamination - analysis
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Food Preservation - methods
Humans
Ochratoxins - analysis
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to study how the type of post-harvest process, i.e. natural preparation known as the dry method, and two wet processes, affected contamination and toxin production up to the green coffee stage. Batches were contaminated with ochratoxin A or with OTA-producing strains of Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus niger. For OTA artificial contamination, hulling or husk removal caused a reduction of OTA. When A. ochraceus was inoculated at low level, its growth was hampered by indigenous mould flora contrary that observed with A. niger. The fungal counts and OTA assays showed that the best way of limiting the development and impact of contaminating toxigenic flora "from the field" was the physical wet method.
PubMed ID
16023238 View in PubMed
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Identity of the cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee and its effects on liver function enzymes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218548
Source
J Lipid Res. 1994 Apr;35:721-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
M P Weusten-Van der Wouw
M B Katan
R. Viani
A C Huggett
R. Liardon
P G Lund-Larsen
D S Thelle
I. Ahola
A. Aro
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Source
J Lipid Res. 1994 Apr;35:721-33
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alanine Transaminase - blood
Cholesterol - blood
Coffee - chemistry
Cooking
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diterpenes - isolation & purification - pharmacology
Double-Blind Method
Female
Humans
Lipids - isolation & purification - pharmacology
Male
Norway
Palmitates - pharmacology
Triglycerides - blood
gamma-Glutamyltransferase - blood
Abstract
Boiled coffee contains an unidentified lipid that raises serum cholesterol. We studied the effects of the ingestion of coffee oil fractions of increasing purity in volunteers in order to identify the cholesterol-raising factor. In 15 volunteers who ingested 0.75 g/d of a non-triglyceride-fraction from coffee oil for 4 weeks, mean cholesterol increased by 48 mg/dl (1.2 mmol/l) relative to placebo. In contrast, a coffee oil stripped of the non-triglyceride lipids cafestol and kahweol had no effect. In three volunteers, purified cafestol (73 mg/d) plus kahweol (58 mg/d) increased cholesterol by 66 mg/dl (1.7 mmol/l) after 6 weeks. Oil from Robusta beans, which contains cafestol but negligible kahweol, also raised serum cholesterol. These findings show that cafestol is at least partly responsible for the cholesterol-raising effect of boiled coffee. Coffee oils and brews containing cafestol consistently increased serum triglycerides and alanine amino-transferase, and depressed serum creatinine and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT). After withdrawal GGT activity rose above baseline. Norwegians who habitually consumed 5-9 cups of boiled coffee per day had higher serum cholesterol levels and lower GGT but no higher alanine aminotransferase activity than controls. Thus, serum cholesterol is raised by cafestol and possibly also kahweol, both natural components of coffee beans. The mechanism of action is unknown but is accompanied by alterations in liver function enzymes.
Notes
Erratum In: J Lipid Res 1994 Aug;35(8):1510
PubMed ID
7911820 View in PubMed
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Performance of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301773
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 06 01; 107(6):941-947
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-01-2018
Author
Øivind Midttun
Arve Ulvik
Ottar Nygård
Per M Ueland
Author Affiliation
Bevital AS, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 06 01; 107(6):941-947
Date
06-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alkaloids - blood
Biomarkers
Coffee - chemistry
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drinking
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Abstract
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and studies suggest that drinking coffee has beneficial health effects. The phytohormone trigonelline is present in large amounts in coffee beans, and circulating concentrations of trigonelline have been shown to be positively related to dietary intake of coffee and to increase significantly after the consumption of a bolus dose of coffee.
We cross-sectionally investigated the utility of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting. We secondarily investigated if coffee intake is related to plasma concentrations of vitamin B-3 (niacin) forms.
In a Norwegian cohort of 3503 participants, we combined questionnaire data on the number of cups of coffee consumed per day with plasma trigonelline to evaluate trigonelline as a marker of coffee intake. The suitability of plasma trigonelline to discriminate those not consuming from those consuming coffee was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Plasma collected at 2 time points 1 y apart was used to determine the within-person reproducibility of trigonelline.
We found that plasma trigonelline concentrations increased strongly with increasing amounts of coffee consumed. ROC analysis showed that trigonelline had an area under the curve of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.94) for distinguishing coffee abstainers from coffee drinkers. Plasma trigonelline had a good within-person reproducibility (0.66; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.68) for samples collected 1 y apart. The amount of coffee consumed was not associated with plasma concentrations of the niacin vitamers nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide.
Plasma trigonelline performs well as a marker of coffee intake. Data used in this study were derived from the clinical trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00354081.
PubMed ID
29771289 View in PubMed
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Survey of Canadian retail coffees for ochratoxin A.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188030
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2002 Sep;19(9):869-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
G A Lombaert
P. Pellaers
M. Chettiar
D. Lavalee
P M Scott
B P-Y Lau
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, 510 Lagimodière Blvd, Winnipeg, MB, R2J 3Y1, Canada. Gary_Lombaert@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Food Addit Contam. 2002 Sep;19(9):869-77
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Carcinogens - analysis
Chromatography, Liquid
Coffee - chemistry
Consumer Product Safety - standards
Food Contamination
Health Surveys
Humans
Ochratoxins - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
One-hundred and one specimens of coffee were gathered from retail outlets across Canada and analysed for ochratoxin A. Seventy-one specimens were roasted beans or roasted ground coffee, and 30 were instant (or 'soluble') coffees. All samples were extracted with methanol-sodium bicarbonate. The extracts were cleaned up either by immunoaffinity column chromatography or by a combination of solid-phase extraction and immunoaffinity column chromatography. Ochratoxin A was quantified by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. The minimum quantifiable level was 0.1 ng g(-1). Ochratoxin A was present, above the minimum quantifiable level, in 42 (59%) of 71 beans and ground coffee and in 20 (67%) of 30 instant coffees. The mean ochratoxin A level in the positive samples of beans and ground coffee was 0.6 ng g(-1), and the mean level in the positive samples of instant coffee was 1.1 ng g(-1).
PubMed ID
12396398 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.