BACKGROUND: Elevated concentrations of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and serum total cholesterol are risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Previous studies showed that the consumption of very high doses of unfiltered coffee increases tHcy and total cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: A prospective intervention study was performed to assess the effects of coffee consumption on the concentrations of tHcy and total cholesterol by using doses and brewing methods common in southeastern Norway. DESIGN: The study was an unblinded, controlled trial with 191 healthy, nonsmoking, coffee-drinking volunteers aged 24-69 y randomly assigned to 3 groups who were asked to consume for 6 consecutive weeks no coffee, 1-3 cups (approximately 175-525 mL)/d, or > or =4 cups (approximately 700 mL)/d prepared in the manner to which they were accustomed. Blood samples were drawn when the subjects were randomly assigned and at 3 and 6 wk of the trial. Dietary data were collected by questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety-seven percent of the participants reported being regular consumers of caffeinated filtered coffee. Abstention from coffee for 6 wk was associated with a decrease in the tHcy concentration of 1.08 micromol/L and a decrease in the total cholesterol concentration of 0.28 mmol/L in participants who had been drinking on average 4 cups of filtered coffee daily for the past year. Adjustments for several possible confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Abstention from filtered coffee in doses that are commonly consumed was associated with lower concentrations of tHcy and total cholesterol.
OBJECTIVE--To clarify the nature of the association between alcohol intake and psoriasis. DESIGN--Case-control study of men aged 19-50 with onset of skin disease in 1976 or later. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of the departments of dermatology of the university central hospitals in Helsinki, Oulu, and Tampere from September 1987 to April 1989. SUBJECTS--144 Patients with psoriasis and 285 unmatched controls with other skin diseases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of clinical examination and self administered questionnaire assessing lifestyle and alcohol intake during two specified periods--namely, 12 months before the onset of skin disease and 12 months before the date of examination. RESULTS--Recalled mean alcohol intake before the onset of skin diseases was 42.9 g/day among the patients with psoriasis and 21.0 g/day among the controls. In logistic regression analysis psoriasis was associated with alcohol intake but not with coffee consumption, smoking, age, marital state, or social group. The odds ratio for psoriasis at an alcohol intake of 100 g/day compared with no intake was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.9). The controls decreased their alcohol intake after the onset of the disease but the group with psoriasis did not. Analysis of serum enzyme values showed that gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was significantly correlated with alcohol intake (r = 0.35), the mean activity being 75.0 U/l among patients with psoriasis and 41.9 U/l among controls. CONCLUSIONS--Alcohol is a risk factor for psoriasis in young and middle aged men, and psoriasis may sustain drinking.
Alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the Canadian Enhanced Surveillance System case-control project. Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group.
The relationship between alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer was investigated using population-based case-control data obtained from eight Canadian provinces. Our findings are based on analyses performed on 583 histologically confirmed pancreatic cancer cases and 4813 controls. Questionnaire data were obtained directly from 76% of the cases. Male subjects with 35 or more cigarette pack-years had an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer relative to never smokers (OR= 1.46, 95% CI 1.00-2.14). Similarly, women reporting at least 23 cigarette pack-years of smoking had an odds ratio of 1.84 (95% CI 1.25-2.69). For the most part, consumption of total alcohol, wine, liquor and beer was not associated with pancreatic cancer. Coffee drinking was not related to pancreatic cancer. More work is needed to clarify the role of these and other potentially modifiable risk factors as a means to reduce the incidence of this disease for which treatment results remain disappointing.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, physical activity and intake of alcohol or caffeinated drinks were associated with urinary incontinence in women. DESIGN: Cross sectional population-based study. SETTING: The Norwegian Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Tr?ndelag (EPINCONT) Study is part of a large survey performed in a county in Norway during 1995-1997. POPULATION: Women >/=20 years (n = 34,755, 75% of the invited) attended the first part of the survey and received the questionnaire. There were 27,936 (80% of source population) women who completed the incontinence part of the questionnaire. METHODS: Questionnaire covering several health topics including urinary incontinence was received at a screening station. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding and to establish associations with the different outcomes under investigation: any incontinence, severe incontinence and stress, urge and mixed subtypes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect measure were odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Former and current smoking was associated with incontinence, but only for those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day. Severe incontinence was weakly associated with smoking regardless of number of cigarettes. The association between increasing body mass index and incontinence was strong and present for all subtypes. Increasing levels of low intensity physical activity had a weak and negative association with incontinence. Tea drinkers were at slightly higher risk for all types of incontinence. We found no important effects of high intensity physical activity, intake of alcohol or coffee. CONCLUSIONS: Several potentially modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with urinary incontinence. Highest odds ratios were found for body mass index, heavy smoking and tea drinking.
The association between five socioeconomic indices (lifetime occupation, education, income, ownership of material possessions, and childhood socioeconomic status) and plasma fibrinogen levels was investigated in middle-aged Finnish men who were part of the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study is based on a representative age-stratified sample of 2,682 men aged 42, 48, 54, and 60 years. The data were collected between 1984 and 1989. The present analysis is restricted to the 2,011 men for whom information on fibrinogen and all covariates was available. The covariates were alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical fitness, smoking, coffee consumption, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood leukocyte count, and prevalent disease (at least one sign of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, or previous stroke). An age-adjusted inverse association was found between levels of plasma fibrinogen and four of the five socioeconomic indices: current income, education, lifetime occupation status, and current material possessions. After adjustment for the covariates, the association persisted for education, current income, and lifetime occupation. Analysis of the joint effect of childhood and adult socioeconomic status indicated that those who were economically disadvantaged at both times had the highest fibrinogen levels, but the fibrinogen levels of those who were not poor as adults had no variation by childhood socioeconomic status.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of consumption of filtered and boiled coffee, on the incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The study base consisted of the population 45-65/70 years-old in two Swedish counties, Stockholm and Västernorrland, 1992/93-94. In all, 1943 cases of first nonfatal myocardial infarction were identified. For each case one control was selected from the study base concurrently with disease incidence by matching the sex, age and place of residence of the case. Information about coffee consumption and other factors was obtained by mailed questionnaire and a medical examination. The participation rate was 85% amongst cases and 74% amongst controls. RESULTS: Men with a reported consumption of 7-9 dL filtered coffee per day showed an increased incidence of first myocardial infarction compared with consumers of 3 dL day-1 or less (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). A consumption of at least 10 dL day-1 was associated with an RR of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.42-2.63) for filtered and 2.20 (95% CI: 1.17-4.15) for boiled coffee. Amongst women, no clear association was seen between consumption of filtered coffee and myocardial infarction but consumption of boiled coffee tended to be related to an increased incidence. Comparing subjects drinking boiled coffee with those drinking filtered coffee and adjusting for the amount consumed gave an increased incidence for boiled coffee amongst both men (RR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.07-1.80) and women (RR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.04-2.56). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of boiled coffee appears to increase the incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction. This increased incidence is consistent with randomized trials showing an adverse impact of boiled coffee on blood lipids.
A matched patient-control study of bladder cancer examined the relationship of the disease to occupation, smoking and intake of tea, coffee, cola, alcohol and artificial sweeteners.There was no association of disease with occupation for these patients. Heavy smoking gave relative risks of 6.37 and 4.36 for men and women respectively; there was evidence of a dose-response relationship. Tea and coffee intake did not increase the risk of disease nor did prolonged use of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol and cola intake increased the relative risk of bladder cancer among male smokers. There is some suggestion that smoking interacts with both alcohol and cola intake in the production of bladder cancer.
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Many studies have found an inverse association between consumption of filtered coffee and incident type 2 diabetes. The effect of boiled coffee has been less studied.
Information on self-reported coffee consumption was available from health surveys conducted from 1985 to 1999. We estimated type 2 diabetes incidences from redeemed prescriptions of oral antidiabetic drugs in the period 1 January 2004 to 1 January 2008.
With less than 1 cup/day as the reference, the relative risks associated with 1-4, 5-8, and 9 or more cups of boiled coffee per day were 0.87 (95% confidence interval = 0.80-0.95), 0.65 (0.59-0.72), and 0.65 (0.57-0.74), respectively, after adjusting for confounders. The corresponding relative risks associated with other types of coffee (mainly filtered) were 0.84 (0.79-0.90), 0.67 (0.62-0.71) and 0.62 (0.56-0.68).
A moderate inverse association was found between consumption of both boiled and other types of coffee at the age of 40-45 years and the risk of being prescribed oral antidiabetic drugs 5-20 years later.
The effects of caffeine consumption on delayed conception were evaluated in a European multicenter study on risk factors of infertility. Information was collected retrospectively on time of unprotected intercourse for the first pregnancy and the most recent waiting time episode in a randomly selected sample of 3,187 women aged 25-44 years from five European countries (Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) between August 1991 and February 1993. The consumption of caffeinated beverages at the beginning of the waiting time was used to estimate daily caffeine intake, which was categorized as 0-100, 101-300, 301-500, and > or = 501 mg. Risk of subfecundity (> or = 9.5 months) and the fecundability ratio, respectively, were assessed by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard analyses, adjusting for age, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption, frequency of intercourse, educational level, working status, use of oral contraceptives, and country. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.04) for subfecundity in the first pregnancy was observed for women drinking more than 500 mg of caffeine per day, the effect being relatively stronger in smokers (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.92-2.63) than in nonsmokers (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.85-2.23). Women in the highest level of consumption had an increase in the time leading to the first pregnancy of 11% (hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.03). These associations were observed consistently in all countries as well as for the most recent waiting time episode. The authors conclude that high levels of caffeine intake may delay conception among fertile women.