An analysis of the ethical and functional linguistic content of Canadian hospital mission statements was conducted. The ethical content analysis identified deontology as the dominant ethical orientation. The functional linguistic analysis revealed a trend toward the depersonalization and objectification of action. Implications for formulating effective mission statements were discussed.
This article summarizes some of the results of the BIOMED II project "Basic Ethical Principles in European Bioethics and Biolaw" (1995-1998) connected to a research project of the Danish Research Councils "Bioethics and Law" (1993-1998). The BIOMED project was based on cooperation between 22 partners in most EU countries. The aim of the project was to identify the ethical principles of respect for autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability as four important ideas or values for a European bioethics and biolaw. The research concluded that the basic ethical principles cannot be understood as universal everlasting ideas or transcendental truths but they rather function reflective guidelines and important values in European culture. The method of the research was conceptual, philosophical analysis of the cultural background of the four values or normative ideas that people use and find important in their existence. Moreover, this was combined with analysis of empirical legal material and policy documents. Also, a number of qualitative interviews with relevant experts were carried out. Another important result of the BIOMED project was the partner's Policy Proposals to the European Commission, the Barcelona Declaration, unique as a philosophical and political agreement between experts in bioethics and biolaw from many different countries. The Policy Proposals are reprinted here at the end of the article.
The appearance of the prescription privileges debate in a recent issue of Canadian Psychology presents an opportunity to examine prescription privileges from a Canadian perspective. The principles of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists (CCE) were applied to a number of key arguments offered in the debate and were found useful in evaluating their application to the Canadian context. The ethical principles provided direction in examining the full range of prescription privilege issues. The CCE may prove to be a valuable guide in providing a moral framework for the eventual development of Canadian policy on prescription privileges for psychologists.
This report explores the movement of physicians to, from, and within Canada and identifies recurring patterns of migration. The primary position of the report is that physician movement is part of reality both internationally and within Canada, and that movement of Canadian-trained physicians creates a need for international medical graduates (IMGs) in "physician-losing" locations. The report's argument is based on data retrieved from public sources on aggregate physician practice patterns in Canada and analyzed for migration patterns. In addition, literature was reviewed on factors affecting the migration patterns being described.Canadian-educated physicians have tended to move from less prosperous to more prosperous provinces and from rural to urban areas; because of the resulting need, the physician-losing locales generally have the highest proportions of IMGs. Physicians traditionally have tended to emigrate from Canada to the United States, thus increasing Canadian demand for IMGs, but recently this movement has slowed and even reversed. In Canada, liberalized immigration policies for physicians combined with a shortage of postgraduate training positions to create a serious bottleneck early in the current decade. However, this problem is now being resolved. In summary, physician migration within Canada shows specific long-term patterns, and IMGs will be needed in underserved areas for years to come. Well-informed policies for workforce management are essential in Canada to ensure an adequate physician supply consisting mainly of Canadian-educated physicians but also including IMGs. A role for nonadvocacy groups such as the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates may be to help ensure that recruitment of physicians from developing countries follows accepted ethical principles.