Lipid and antioxidant state of clinically normal subjects working in deep mines was studied under natural conditions during one month. Disorders in lipid metabolism and intensified peroxidation were recorded in these subjects. A prophylactic ration has been recommended considering the food status, alimentary risk factors and extreme conditions of miners' labour.
Clinical and functional examination of the miners who suffered from coronary heart disease showed a higher ectopic activity of the myocardium during their work under underground conditions and during the subsequent 4 hours after its termination. It also indicated a significantly higher fatal cases of sudden coronary death in the miners in the aforementioned periods. To prevent the development of complications occurred in miners, the status of the cardiovascular system was proposed to be dynamically controlled.
The current "Energy Crisis" has dramatically increased our potential need for coal, the worlds most abundant fossil fuel. This will probably lead to a greater use of automation and instrumentation in the coal mining industry. The presence of methane in coal mines and in the coal itself plus the presence of coal dust, both of which can form an explosive atmosphere in air, means that the possibility of a gas or coal dust ignition must be considered when designing, purchasing and installing new equipment in this industry. In addition, many metallurgical processes involve the use of potentially explosive substances against which similar safety precautions must be taken. This paper outlines the various methods of protection currently in use and proposed for electrical instruments in explosive atmospheres, with particular emphasis on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission.
The article deals with the methological issues of preventive measures in the process of technological restructuring of mines in the Russian Federation, with due account of the hygienic stratification of different mines as to the degrees of the labour conditions' potential hazardness, regularities in and prognostics of occupational pathologies decreases and morbidity with temporary disability rates.
Pulsimetry proved to be the most acceptable method for estimating energy requirements of miners working under extreme conditions with constantly changing ergometric parameters. It has been established that the mean daily energy requirements of miners working in deep coal mines under conditions of high temperature comprise 3500 kcal. Energy requirements for the main types of the physical activity of workers in deep mines have been calculated, basing on basal metabolism, metabolic constants for varying activities have been determined.
A hygienic assessment of the working conditions at the open-cast mines of KATEK and YuYaUK showed that the conditions were better at KATEK than at the Neryungrin mine, due to milder climate, non-transport system of stripping, wheel-type trenching, and railway transport in the mining areas. No cases of occupational disease were registered. The working conditions and the character of work may influence the general morbidity, in particular the development of cardiovascular disease. The efficacy of health promotion actions is analysed and recommendations on further improvement of the working conditions are presented.