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Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of Clostridium novyi, C. perfringens and Bacillus cereus isolated from injecting drug users during 2000.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187678
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2002 Nov;51(11):990-1000
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2002
Author
J. McLauchlin
J E Salmon
S. Ahmed
J S Brazier
M M Brett
R C George
J. Hood
Author Affiliation
Division of Gastrointestinal Infections, PHLS Central Public Health Laboratory, London. jmclauchlin@phls.org.uk
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2002 Nov;51(11):990-1000
Date
Nov-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacillaceae Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Bacillus cereus - genetics - isolation & purification
Clostridium - genetics - isolation & purification
Clostridium Infections - epidemiology - etiology
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Female
Great Britain - epidemiology
Heroin
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Substance-Related Disorders - complications
Wound Infection - microbiology
Abstract
As part of the follow-up investigations associated with an outbreak of severe illness and death among illegal injecting drug users during 2000, 43 cultures of Clostridium novyi type A, 40 C. perfringens type A and 6 isolates of Bacillus cereus were characterised by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Among the 43 C. novyi isolates, 23 different AFLP profiles were detected. The same AFLP profile was detected in isolates from 18 drug users investigated during 2000 from Scotland, England, the Republic of Ireland and Norway and a wound from a patient in 2000 who was not identified as a drug user. Unique AFLP profiles were obtained from four drug users from England and the Republic of Ireland, 10 historical isolates from culture collections, an isolate from food (1989) and three isolates from wounds (1995, 1991, 1988). The 40 C. perfringens isolates were from 13 drug users, the contents of one syringe and two samples of heroin. Sixteen AFLP types of C. perfringens were distinguished and there was little evidence for commonality among the isolates. The AFLP types of C. perfringens from heroin differed and were unique. Six isolates of B. cereus were from four drug users and two samples of heroin. Four different AFLP patterns were distinguished. Three AFLP types were isolated from four drug users. B. cereus isolates from an aspirate and a heroin sample collected from the same drug user were identical, and were also indistinguishable from an isolate from a groin infection in a second drug user. The AFLP type of the isolate from a second and unrelated heroin sample was unique. The AFLP results showed no or very limited evidence for commonality between the different isolates of B. cereus and C. perfringens. In marked contrast, the C. novyi isolates from the majority of the drug users during 2000 were homogeneous, suggesting a common source or clonal selection of a C. novyi type, or both, which either had an adaptive advantage in spore germination, survival or growth following the drug preparation and the injection procedure, or produced a more severe clinical presentation.
PubMed ID
12448684 View in PubMed
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Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and intravaginal misoprostol--United States and Canada, 2001-2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173601
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Jul 29;54(29):724
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-29-2005
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Jul 29;54(29):724
Date
Jul-29-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortifacient Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Abortion, Induced - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Clostridium Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Clostridium sordellii
Female
Humans
Mifepristone - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Misoprostol - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Shock, Septic - epidemiology - etiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
On July 19, 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health advisory regarding the deaths of four women in the United States after medical abortions with Mifeprex (mifepristone, formerly RU-486; Danco Laboratories, New York, New York) and intravaginal misoprostol. Two of these deaths occurred in 2003, one in 2004, and one in 2005. Two of these U.S. cases had clinical illness consistent with toxic shock and had evidence of endometrial infection with Clostridium sordellii, a gram-positive, toxin-forming anaerobic bacteria. In addition, a fatal case of C. sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol was reported in 2001, in Canada. All three cases of C. sordellii infection were notable for lack of fever, and all had refractory hypotension, multiple effusions, hemoconcentration, and a profound leukocytosis. C. sordellii previously has been described as a cause of pregnancy-associated toxic shock syndrome.
PubMed ID
16049422 View in PubMed
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A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129535
Source
Am J Public Health. 2012 Jan;102(1):122-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Vivian D Hope
Norah Palmateer
Lucas Wiessing
Andrea Marongiu
Joanne White
Fortune Ncube
David Goldberg
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Services, Health Protection Agency, London, UK. vivian.hope@hpa.org.uk
Source
Am J Public Health. 2012 Jan;102(1):122-5
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthrax - epidemiology - etiology
Bacillus anthracis
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Botulism - epidemiology - etiology
Clostridium
Clostridium Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium tetani
Drug Users - statistics & numerical data
Europe - epidemiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
Humans
Ireland - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications - epidemiology
Tetanus - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
The recent anthrax outbreak among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Europe has highlighted an ongoing problem with severe illness resulting from spore-forming bacteria in IDUs. We collated the numbers of cases of 4 bacterial illnesses (botulism, tetanus, Clostridium novyi, and anthrax) in European IDUs for 2000 to 2009 and calculated population rates. Six countries reported 367 cases; rates varied from 0.03 to 7.54 per million people. Most cases (92%) were reported from 3 neighboring countries: Ireland, Norway, and the United Kingdom. This geographic variation needs investigation.
Notes
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Cites: Drug Test Anal. 2011 Feb;3(2):89-9621322119
PubMed ID
22095355 View in PubMed
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Incidence of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized children. A prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37766
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1990 Mar;79(3):292-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1990
Author
M. Tvede
P O Schiøtz
P A Krasilnikoff
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark.
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1990 Mar;79(3):292-9
Date
Mar-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Anti-Bacterial Agents - adverse effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Clostridium Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Cytotoxins - analysis
Denmark - epidemiology
Feces - analysis - microbiology
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Hospitals, University
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Abstract
A total of 394 children, aged 0-14 years, referred to a paediatric department were investigated for the occurrence of Clostridium difficile, its cytotoxin in faeces, and its clinical significance in a prospective study over one year. Of the children in the investigation, 337 suffered from gastrointestinal diseases or had been treated with antibiotics prior to the investigation. Twenty-four percent of these children had Cl. difficile in one or more faecal samples and toxin was demonstrated in half of these patients. In 18/148 (12%) of the patients with acute gastroenteritis Cl. difficile was isolated as the only pathogen. In contrast, among 57 control children with no gastrointestinal symptoms and no prior antibiotic treatment significantly fewer harboured Cl. difficile (p less than 0.01). Cl. difficile was isolated with similar frequency in children with or without prior antibiotic treatment. Isolation of Cl. difficile was significantly higher in patients under one year of age (p less than 0.001). In 78% of the patients with Cl. difficile the bacteria were found in faeces during the initial two days of hospitalization indicating that most of the cases were community acquired. The occurrence of Cl. difficile was not influenced by seasonal variation and the distribution between sexes was equal.
PubMed ID
2333742 View in PubMed
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