A written test of clinical decision-making, the Key Features Examination, was developed for use in clerkship.
Following the guidelines provided by the Medical Council of Canada, a Key Features Examination was developed and implemented in an internal medicine clinical clerkship, during the 1998/99 clerkship year. The reliability and concurrent validity of the exam were assessed.
A 2 hour examination, containing 15 key feature problems, was administered to 101 students during 6 consecutive internal medicine clerkship rotations. The reliability of the exam, calculated from Cronbach's alpha, was 0.49. The exam had modest correlation with other measures of knowledge and clinical performance.
The Key Feature Examination is a feasible and reliable evaluation tool that may be implemented as a component of student assessment during a clinical clerkship.
In a study to determine the site and preceptor characteristics most valued by clerks and residents in the ambulatory setting we wished to confirm whether these would support effective learning. The deep approach to learning is thought to be more effective for learning than surface approaches. In this study we determined how the approaches to learning of clerks and residents predicted the valued site and preceptor characteristics in the ambulatory setting.
Postal survey of all medical residents and clerks in training in Ontario determining the site and preceptor characteristics most valued in the ambulatory setting. Participants also completed the Workplace Learning questionnaire that includes 3 approaches to learning scales and 3 workplace climate scales. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict the preferred site and preceptor characteristics as the dependent variables by the average scores of the approaches to learning and perception of workplace climate scales as the independent variables.
There were 1642 respondents, yielding a 47.3% response rate. Factor analysis revealed 7 preceptor characteristics and 6 site characteristics valued in the ambulatory setting. The Deep approach to learning scale predicted all of the learners' preferred preceptor characteristics (beta = 0.076 to beta = 0.234, p
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There are several reasons for using global ratings in addition to checklists for scoring objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) stations. However, there has been little evidence collected regarding the validity of these scales. This study assessed the construct validity of an analytic global rating with 4 component subscales: empathy, coherence, verbal and non-verbal expression.
A total of 19 Year 3 and 38 Year 4 clinical clerks were scored on content checklists and these global ratings during a 10-station OSCE. T-tests were used to assess differences between groups for overall checklist and global scores, and for each of the 4 subscales.
The mean global rating was significantly higher for senior clerks (75.5% versus 71.3%, t55 = 2.12, P
OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to explore the influences of an obstetric and gynecologic medical student clerkship on a remote medical community. Return of physicians to Alaska and faculty perceptions of their experience were central foci. STUDY DESIGN: Data were obtained on former clerks to determine choice of specialty and location of practice. Data regarding all physicians new to Alaska was correlated with the University of Washington Medical School graduate data. Additionally, a questionnaire with a Likert-type scale evaluated the 10 clinical faculty members participating in the clerkship. RESULTS: Between 1978 and 1991 we trained 266 clerks. A total of 77 of 374 (21%) new physicians in Alaska (1978 to 1991) were graduates of the University of Washington; 26 of those 77 (34%) were our former Anchorage obstetrics and gynecology clerks. The clinical faculty reported both positive and negative effects of their participation in the clerkship. CONCLUSION: The desired benefit, the return of new physicians to Alaska, seemed supported. Questionnaire results hinted at additional benefits for the supervising faculty physicians in this isolated community. The formal affiliation effected by the clerkship seemed to have a positive impact on patient care, communication, consultation, and shared action among the participating physicians.
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and pedagogy in Swedish and Danish interprofessional training units (ITUs) and to synthesize empirical findings from Swedish and Danish ITUs published in peer review journals. A questionnaire concerning organization and pedagogy was sent to twenty Swedish and Danish ITUs. After a bibliographic search aimed to find empirical studies from ITUs, twenty Swedish and eight Danish studies were included in the review. The questionnaires results showed that despite different wording, the overall aims for the ITUs were to provide students with the possibility of uniprofessional learning, interprofessional learning, and strengthening of professional identity. Furthermore, it appeared that there were different organizational and pedagogical approaches. The review revealed that differences in clinical tutors' affiliation and presence in the ITU were challenging. Also different pedagogical approaches were discussed. However, all articles showed that the goals for the ITUs in general were fulfilled. There is basis therefore to recommend the establishment of future clinical ITUs with the patient in the core and with the use of a student activating approach.
To understand the current landscape and the evolution of predeparture training (PDT) in Canadian medical education.
The authors surveyed one faculty and one student global health leader at each of Canada's 17 medical schools in February 2008 and May 2010 to assess the delivery of and requirements for PDT at each institution. The authors then used descriptive statistics to compare responses across schools and years.
In 2008, one faculty and one student representative from each of the 17 Canadian medical schools completed the survey; in 2010, 17 faculty and 16 student representatives responded. The number of medical schools offering PDT grew substantially from 2008 to 2010 (11/17 [65%] versus 16/17 [94%]). Three of the five new programs in 2010 were student run. The number of schools with mandatory PDT nearly doubled (6/17 [35%] versus 11/17 [65%]). However, institutional funding remained scarce, as 10 of 16 programs had budgets of less than $500 in 2010. PDT content, frequency, and format varied from school to school.
Medical students have been responsible for organizing the majority of new PDT. To ensure quality and sustainability, however, faculty must play a more central role in the planning and implementation of such training programs. Medical schools must continue to reevaluate how best to maximize global health electives for trainees and the communities in which they study. PDT offers one avenue for schools to ensure that students are safe and socially accountable during their time abroad.
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX) for postgraduate year 4 (PGY-4) internal medicine trainees compared to a high-stakes assessment of clinical competence, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Comprehensive Examination in Internal Medicine (RCPSC IM examination).
Twenty-two PGY-4 residents at the University of British Columbia and the University of Calgary were evaluated, during the 6 months preceding their 2004 RCPSC IM examination, with a mean of 5.5 mini-CEX encounters (range 3-6). Experienced Royal College examiners from each site travelled to the alternate university to assess the encounters.
The mini-CEX encounters assessed a broad range of internal medicine patient problems. The inter-encounter reliability for the residents' mean mini-CEX overall clinical competence score was 0.74. The attenuated correlation between residents' mini-CEX overall clinical competence score and their 2004 RCPSC IM oral examination score was 0.59 (P = 0.01).
By examining multiple sources of validity evidence, this study suggests that the mini-CEX provides a reliable and valid assessment of clinical competence for PGY-4 trainees in internal medicine.