Growth patterns of body size, proportion, and composition were analyzed in 57 male and 56 female Eskimos from St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, ranging in age from 1.23 through 19.82 years. Age-groups means for whites and blacks of the U.S. Health Examination Survey served as reference data. Relative to HES data, the Eskimo sample were shorter with lower values for leg length, while there were no differences from the reference values for sitting height. The Eskimos also had higher values of Quetelet's Index, the sitting height/height ratio, and the upper arm muscle circumference, while there were no differences in body weight or triceps skinfold thickness. Differences from the reference data were more pronounced in males than in females. The growth patterns for size and body proportion are in conformity with known relationships between morphology and climate.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1260.
Sera of native inhabitants of Arctic regions were assayed for antibodies to HTLV-I by the ELISA technique followed by competition experiments to confirm antibody specificity. Residents of 7 widely separated Alaskan villages exhibited prevalence rates of 0 to 12% for HTLV-I antibodies. Less than 1% of Greenland Eskimos were HTLV-I antibody-positive. Residents of 3 northern Swedish regions ranged in HTLV-I antibody prevalence from 0 to 5%. Sera of healthy native inhabitants of Alaska and northern Sweden were similarly assayed for antibodies to HTLV-II. No additional sera were shown to be positive for HTLV-II antibodies. While some of the HTLV-I antibody-positive sera exhibited cross-reactivity with HTLV-II antigens, competition experiments using disrupted HTLV-II or purified HTLV-I p24 as test antigens indicated that the primary antibody response in all cases tested was elicited by HTLV-I. Our results show that HTLV-I distribution is not restricted to endemic areas in warm, humid climates, but extends to Arctic regions. Within these regions, HTLV-I exhibits the same restricted distribution seen in other areas where virus infection is prevalent. The Arctic does not seem to be a reservoir for HTLV-II infection. The origin of HTLV-I in Arctic areas is not known. One may speculate that foreign visitors introduced the virus into Aleut and Lapp populations, and that it has been maintained there and restricted in its distribution as a result of close familial relationships.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1894.
The Arctic Health Research Center began housing studies in 1955, with the cooperation and major financial support of the Division of Indian Health. The program was begun in response to the critical health problems of Alaskan aborigines--in particular, high tuberculosis incidence and death rates. The expenditure of millions of dollars on tuberculosis treatment for a relatively small population clearly indicated the need for basic measures such as adequate housing. After an analysis of the technical problems relevant to housing construction in remote Alaskan villages, four experimental houses were designed and constructed in the field. Each was occupied by an Eskimo family; in return for rent-free occupancy, the householders maintained the house and kept temperature records. As a result of these studies and other technological developments and advances, the emphasis in the field of housing for Alaskan aborigines has now shifted from the technical to the administrative and legislative aspects. The next step toward better housing in remote Alaskan villages should be the development of a realistic program of financing and supervision.
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 810.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 116.