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Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in the continental United States: a vector at the cool margin of its geographic range.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112750
Source
J Med Entomol. 2013 May;50(3):467-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Lars Eisen
Chester G Moore
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, 3195 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. lars.eisen@colostate.edu
Source
J Med Entomol. 2013 May;50(3):467-78
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aedes - growth & development - physiology - virology
Animals
Climate change
Dengue - epidemiology - history - transmission - virology
Dengue Virus - physiology
Disease Outbreaks - history
Environment
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Insect Vectors - growth & development - physiology - virology
Larva - growth & development - physiology
Temperature
United States - epidemiology
Yellow Fever - epidemiology - history - transmission - virology
Yellow fever virus - physiology
Abstract
After more than a half century without recognized local dengue outbreaks in the continental United States, there were recent outbreaks of autochthonous dengue in the southern parts of Texas (2004-2005) and Florida (2009-2011). This dengue reemergence has provoked interest in the extent of the future threat posed by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses in urban settings, to human health in the continental United States. Ae. aegypti is an intriguing example of a vector species that not only occurs in the southernmost portions of the eastern United States today but also is incriminated as the likely primary vector in historical outbreaks of yellow fever as far north as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, from the 1690s to the 1820s. For vector species with geographic ranges limited, in part, by low temperature and cool range margins occurring in the southern part of the continental United States, as is currently the case for Ae. aegypti, it is tempting to speculate that climate warming may result in a northward range expansion (similar to that seen for Ixodes tick vectors of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in Scandinavia and southern Canada in recent decades). Although there is no doubt that climate conditions directly impact many aspects of the life history of Ae. aegypti, this mosquito also is closely linked to the human environment and directly influenced by the availability of water-holding containers for oviposition and larval development. Competition with other container-inhabiting mosquito species, particularly Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), also may impact the presence and local abundance of Ae. aegypti. Field-based studies that focus solely on the impact of weather or climate factors on the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, including assessments of the potential impact of climate warming on the mosquito's future range and abundance, do not consider the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic factors or biological competitors for establishment and proliferation of Ae. aegypti. The results of such studies therefore should not be assumed to apply in areas with different socioeconomic conditions or composition of container-inhabiting mosquito species. For example, results from field-based studies at the high altitude cool margins for Ae. aegypti in Mexico's central highlands or the Andes in South America cannot be assumed to be directly applicable to geographic areas in the United States with comparable climate conditions. Unfortunately, we have a very poor understanding of how climatic drivers interact with the human landscape and biological competitors to impact establishment and proliferation of Ae. aegypti at the cool margin of its range in the continental United States. A first step toward assessing the future threat this mosquito poses to human health in the continental United States is to design and conduct studies across strategic climatic and socioeconomic gradients in the United States (including the U.S.-Mexico border area) to determine the permissiveness of the coupled natural and human environment for Ae. aegypti at the present time. This approach will require experimental studies and field surveys that focus specifically on climate conditions relevant to the continental United States. These studies also must include assessments of how the human landscape, particularly the impact of availability of larval developmental sites and the permissiveness of homes for mosquito intrusion, and the presence of other container-inhabiting mosquitoes that may compete with Ae. aegypti for larval habitat affects the ability of Ae. aegypti to establish and proliferate. Until we are armed with such knowledge, it is not possible to meaningfully assess the potential for climate warming to impact the proliferation potential for Ae. aegypti in the United States outside of the geographic areas where the mosquito already is firmly established, and even less so for dengue virus transmission and dengue disease in humans.
PubMed ID
23802440 View in PubMed
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The annual, temporal and spatial pattern of Setaria tundra outbreaks in Finnish reindeer: a mechanistic transmission model approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297847
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Nov 12; 11(1):565
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-12-2018
Author
Najmul Haider
Sauli Laaksonen
Lene Jung Kjær
Antti Oksanen
Rene Bødker
Author Affiliation
National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. najha@vet.dtu.dk.
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Nov 12; 11(1):565
Date
Nov-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Culicidae - parasitology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Larva
Microclimate
Models, Theoretical
Peritonitis
Reindeer - parasitology
Seasons
Setaria Nematode - isolation & purification
Setariasis - epidemiology - parasitology - transmission
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Temperature
Tundra
Abstract
In northern Finland (Lapland), reindeer are reared as semi-domesticated animals. The region has a short summer season of 2-3 months, yet reindeer are infected with the mosquito-borne filarioid parasite Setaria tundra. The infection causes peritonitis and perihepatitis, which cause significant economic losses due to reduced body weight of infected animals. The objective of this study was to: (i) describe the spatial and temporal pattern of outbreaks in three different areas across Finnish Lapland; and (ii) construct a temperature-driven mechanistic transmission model to quantify the potential role of temperature on intensity of S. tundra transmission in reindeer.
We developed a temperature-driven transmission model able to predict the number of S. tundra potentially transmitted from an infectious reindeer. We applied the model to the years 2004-2015, and compared the predictions to the proportion of reindeer whose livers were condemned due to S. tundra infection at the time of slaughter.
The mean proportion of liver condemnation increased in reindeer slaughtered in late autumn/winter compared to earlier dates. The outbreaks were geographically clustered each year but there were no fixed foci where outbreaks occurred. Larger outbreaks were recorded in the southern regions of reindeer-herding areas compared to the central or northern parts of Lapland. Our model showed that temperatures never allowed for transmission of more than a single generation of S. tundra each season. In southern (Kuusamo) and central (Sodankylä) Lapland, our model predicted an increasing trend from 1979 to 2015 for both the duration of the effective transmission period of S. tundra (P
PubMed ID
30415639 View in PubMed
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Aphid-willow interactions in a high Arctic ecosystem: responses to raised temperature and goose disturbance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258051
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2013 Dec;19(12):3698-708
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Mark A K Gillespie
Ingibjörg S Jónsdóttir
Ian D Hodkinson
Elisabeth J Cooper
Author Affiliation
Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2013 Dec;19(12):3698-708
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aphids - growth & development - physiology
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Geese - physiology
Herbivory
Population Dynamics
Reproduction
Salix - growth & development - physiology
Seasons
Svalbard
Temperature
Abstract
Recently, there have been several studies using open top chambers (OTCs) or cloches to examine the response of Arctic plant communities to artificially elevated temperatures. Few, however, have investigated multitrophic systems, or the effects of both temperature and vertebrate grazing treatments on invertebrates. This study investigated trophic interactions between an herbivorous insect (Sitobion calvulum, Aphididae), a woody perennial host plant (Salix polaris) and a selective vertebrate grazer (barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis). In a factorial experiment, the responses of the insect and its host to elevated temperatures using open top chambers (OTCs) and to three levels of goose grazing pressure were assessed over two summer growing seasons (2004 and 2005). OTCs significantly enhanced the leaf phenology of Salix in both years and there was a significant OTC by goose presence interaction in 2004. Salix leaf number was unaffected by treatments in both years, but OTCs increased leaf size and mass in 2005. Salix reproduction and the phenology of flowers were unaffected by both treatments. Aphid densities were increased by OTCs but unaffected by goose presence in both years. While goose presence had little effect on aphid density or host plant phenology in this system, the OTC effects provide interesting insights into the possibility of phenological synchrony disruption. The advanced phenology of Salix effectively lengthens the growing season for the plant, but despite a close association with leaf maturity, the population dynamics of the aphid appeared to lack a similar phenological response, except for the increased population observed.
PubMed ID
23749580 View in PubMed
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Are the Antarctic dipteran, Eretmoptera murphyi, and Arctic collembolan, Megaphorura arctica, vulnerable to rising temperatures?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261607
Source
Bull Entomol Res. 2014 Aug;104(4):494-503
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
M J Everatt
P. Convey
M R Worland
J S Bale
S A L Hayward
Source
Bull Entomol Res. 2014 Aug;104(4):494-503
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Insects - physiology
Motor Activity - physiology
Statistics, nonparametric
Temperature
Abstract
Polar terrestrial invertebrates are suggested as being vulnerable to temperature change relative to lower latitude species, and hence possibly also to climate warming. Previous studies have shown Antarctic and Arctic Collembola and Acari to possess good heat tolerance and survive temperature exposures above 30 °C. To test this feature further, the heat tolerance and physiological plasticity of heat stress were explored in the Arctic collembolan, Megaphorura arctica, from Svalbard and the Antarctic midge, Eretmoptera murphyi, from Signy Island. The data obtained demonstrate considerable heat tolerance in both species, with upper lethal temperatures =35 °C (1 h exposures), and tolerance of exposure to 10 and 15 °C exceeding 56 days. This tolerance is far beyond that required in their current environment. Average microhabitat temperatures in August 2011 ranged between 5.1 and 8.1 °C, and rarely rose above 10 °C, in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Summer soil microhabitat temperatures on Signy Island have previously been shown to range between 0 and 10 °C. There was also evidence to suggest that E. murphyi can recover from high-temperature exposure and that M. arctica is capable of rapid heat hardening. M. arctica and E. murphyi therefore have the physiological capacity to tolerate current environmental conditions, as well as future warming. If the features they express are characteristically more general, such polar terrestrial invertebrates will likely fare well under climate warming scenarios.
PubMed ID
24816280 View in PubMed
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Assessment of the potential health impacts of climate change in Alaska

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287905
Source
Bulletin. State of Alaska Epidemiology. Recommendations and Reports. 2018 Jan 8; 20(1)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2018
I Assessment of the Potential Health Impacts of Climate Change in Alaska Contributed by Sarah Yoder, MS, Alaska Section of Epidemiology January 8, 2018 Acknowledgments: We thank the following people for their contributions to this report: Dr. Sandrine Deglin
  1 document  
Author
Yoder, Sarah
Author Affiliation
Alaska Section of Epidemiology
Source
Bulletin. State of Alaska Epidemiology. Recommendations and Reports. 2018 Jan 8; 20(1)
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Alaska
Climate change
Sea levels
Permafrost
Glaciers
Weather patterns
Sea ice
Temperature
Subsistence
Infectious disease
Sanitation
Health services
Abstract
Background: Over the past century, the air and water temperatures in Alaska have warmed considerably faster than in the rest of the United States. Because Alaska is the only Arctic state in the Nation, Alaskans are likely to face some climate change challenges that will be different than those encountered in other states. For example, permafrost currently underlies 80% of Alaska and provides a stable foundation for the physical infrastructure of many Alaska communities. As has already been seen in numerous villages, the groundcover that overlies permafrost is vulnerable to sinking or caving if the permafrost thaws, resulting in costly damage to physical infrastructure. The reliance on subsistence resources is another contrast to many other states. Many Alaskans depend upon subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife resources for food and to support their way of life. Some Alaskans report that the changing environment has already impacted their traditional practices. Many past efforts to characterize the potential impacts of climate change in Alaska have focused primarily on describing expected changes to the physical environment and the ecosystem, and less on describing how these changes, in addition to changes in animal and environmental health, could affect human health. Thus, a careful analysis of how climate change could affect the health of people living in Alaska is warranted. The Alaska Division of Public Health has conducted such an assessment using the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework; the assessment is based on the current National Climate Assessment (NCA) predictions for Alaska. The document is intended to provide a broad overview of the potential adverse human health impacts of climate change in Alaska and to present examples of adaptation strategies for communities to consider when planning their own response efforts. This document does not present a new model for climate change in Alaska, and it does not offer a critique of the NCA predictions for Alaska.
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Asymmetric changes of growth and reproductive investment herald altitudinal and latitudinal range shifts of two woody species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267266
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Feb;21(2):882-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Luis Matías
Alistair S Jump
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Feb;21(2):882-96
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Climate change
Finland
Juniperus - growth & development - physiology
Pinus - growth & development - physiology
Plant Dispersal
Reproduction
Scotland
Spain
Temperature
Abstract
Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of the geographical distribution of a species, where range expansions or contractions may occur. Current demographical status at geographical range limits can help us to predict population trends and their implications for the future distribution of the species. Thus, understanding the comparability of demographical patterns occurring along both altitudinal and latitudinal gradients would be highly informative. In this study, we analyse the differences in the demography of two woody species through altitudinal gradients at their southernmost distribution limit and the consistency of demographical patterns at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the complete distribution range. We focus on Pinus sylvestris and Juniperus communis, assessing their demographical structure (density, age and mortality rate), growth, reproduction investment and damage from herbivory on 53 populations covering the upper, central and lower altitudes as well as the treeline at central latitude and northernmost and southernmost latitudinal distribution limits. For both species, populations at the lowermost altitude presented older age structure, higher mortality, decreased growth and lower reproduction when compared to the upper limit, indicating higher fitness at the treeline. This trend at the treeline was generally maintained through the latitudinal gradient, but with a decreased growth at the northern edge for both species and lower reproduction for P. sylvestris. However, altitudinal and latitudinal transects are not directly comparable as factors other than climate, including herbivore pressure or human management, must be taken into account if we are to understand how to infer latitudinal processes from altitudinal data.
PubMed ID
25044677 View in PubMed
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Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281203
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154356
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Michael D Tillotson
Thomas P Quinn
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154356
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animal Migration
Animals
Climate
Climate change
Ecosystem
Fisheries
Fresh Water
Geography
Least-Squares Analysis
Life Cycle Stages
Models, Theoretical
Regression Analysis
Rivers
Salmon - physiology
Species Specificity
Temperature
Water - chemistry
Abstract
Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27123845 View in PubMed
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Biogeographic responses of the copepod Calanus glacialis to a changing Arctic marine environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295319
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 01; 24(1):e159-e170
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
01-2018
Author
Zhixuan Feng
Rubao Ji
Carin Ashjian
Robert Campbell
Jinlun Zhang
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 01; 24(1):e159-e170
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Copepoda - physiology
Ecosystem
Ice Cover
Oceans and Seas
Phytoplankton
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
Dramatic changes have occurred in the Arctic Ocean over the past few decades, especially in terms of sea ice loss and ocean warming. Those environmental changes may modify the planktonic ecosystem with changes from lower to upper trophic levels. This study aimed to understand how the biogeographic distribution of a crucial endemic copepod species, Calanus glacialis, may respond to both abiotic (ocean temperature) and biotic (phytoplankton prey) drivers. A copepod individual-based model coupled to an ice-ocean-biogeochemical model was utilized to simulate temperature- and food-dependent life cycle development of C. glacialis annually from 1980 to 2014. Over the 35-year study period, the northern boundaries of modeled diapausing C. glacialis expanded poleward and the annual success rates of C. glacialis individuals attaining diapause in a circumpolar transition zone increased substantially. Those patterns could be explained by a lengthening growth season (during which time food is ample) and shortening critical development time (the period from the first feeding stage N3 to the diapausing stage C4). The biogeographic changes were further linked to large-scale oceanic processes, particularly diminishing sea ice cover, upper ocean warming, and increasing and prolonging food availability, which could have potential consequences to the entire Arctic shelf/slope marine ecosystems.
PubMed ID
28869698 View in PubMed
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Braking effect of climate and topography on global change-induced upslope forest expansion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284779
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Mar;61(3):541-548
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Juha M Alatalo
Alessandro Ferrarini
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Mar;61(3):541-548
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Climate
Climate change
Forests
Models, Theoretical
Sweden
Temperature
Trees
Abstract
Forests are expected to expand into alpine areas due to global climate change. It has recently been shown that temperature alone cannot realistically explain this process and that upslope tree advance in a warmer scenario may depend on the availability of sites with adequate geomorphic/topographic characteristics. Here, we show that, besides topography (slope and aspect), climate itself can produce a braking effect on the upslope advance of subalpine forests and that tree limit is influenced by non-linear and non-monotonic contributions of the climate variables which act upon treeline upslope advance with varying relative strengths. Our results suggest that global climate change impact on the upslope advance of subalpine forests should be interpreted in a more complex way where climate can both speed up and slow down the process depending on complex patterns of contribution from each climate and non-climate variable.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27542087 View in PubMed
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100 records – page 1 of 10.