Skip header and navigation

Refine By

18 records – page 1 of 2.

Adaptive and plastic responses of Quercus petraea populations to climate across Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286725
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jul;23(7):2831-2847
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero
Jean-Baptiste Lamy
Alexis Ducousso
Brigitte Musch
François Ehrenmann
Sylvain Delzon
Stephen Cavers
Wladyslaw Chalupka
Said Dagdas
Jon Kehlet Hansen
Steve J Lee
Mirko Liesebach
Hans-Martin Rau
Achilleas Psomas
Volker Schneck
Wilfried Steiner
Niklaus E Zimmermann
Antoine Kremer
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jul;23(7):2831-2847
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate
Climate change
Denmark
Europe
France
Norway
Quercus - growth & development
Abstract
How temperate forests will respond to climate change is uncertain; projections range from severe decline to increased growth. We conducted field tests of sessile oak (Quercus petraea), a widespread keystone European forest tree species, including more than 150 000 trees sourced from 116 geographically diverse populations. The tests were planted on 23 field sites in six European countries, in order to expose them to a wide range of climates, including sites reflecting future warmer and drier climates. By assessing tree height and survival, our objectives were twofold: (i) to identify the source of differential population responses to climate (genetic differentiation due to past divergent climatic selection vs. plastic responses to ongoing climate change) and (ii) to explore which climatic variables (temperature or precipitation) trigger the population responses. Tree growth and survival were modeled for contemporary climate and then projected using data from four regional climate models for years 2071-2100, using two greenhouse gas concentration trajectory scenarios each. Overall, results indicated a moderate response of tree height and survival to climate variation, with changes in dryness (either annual or during the growing season) explaining the major part of the response. While, on average, populations exhibited local adaptation, there was significant clinal population differentiation for height growth with winter temperature at the site of origin. The most moderate climate model (HIRHAM5-EC; rcp4.5) predicted minor decreases in height and survival, while the most extreme model (CCLM4-GEM2-ES; rcp8.5) predicted large decreases in survival and growth for southern and southeastern edge populations (Hungary and Turkey). Other nonmarginal populations with continental climates were predicted to be severely and negatively affected (Bercé, France), while populations at the contemporary northern limit (colder and humid maritime regions; Denmark and Norway) will probably not show large changes in growth and survival in response to climate change.
Notes
Cites: Nature. 2009 Dec 24;462(7276):1052-520033047
Cites: PLoS One. 2013 Nov 18;8(11):e8044324260391
Cites: Ecol Appl. 2010 Jan;20(1):153-6320349837
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e2297721853061
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2013 Jun;19(6):1645-6123505261
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Apr;15(4):378-9222372546
Cites: Ecol Appl. 2010 Mar;20(2):554-6520405806
Cites: Ecol Appl. 2012 Jan;22(1):154-6522471081
Cites: Nature. 2012 Nov 29;491(7426):752-523172141
Cites: Science. 2001 Apr 27;292(5517):673-911326089
Cites: Int J Biometeorol. 2014 Nov;58(9):1853-6424452386
Cites: Front Plant Sci. 2016 Jan 26;7:126858731
Cites: Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):906-819536238
Cites: C R Biol. 2016 Jul-Aug;339(7-8):263-727263361
Cites: J Evol Biol. 2011 Jul;24(7):1442-5421507119
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e5137423284685
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Jun;15(6):533-4422433068
Cites: Front Plant Sci. 2016 May 02;7:55627200030
Cites: Nature. 2011 Feb 24;470(7335):531-421326204
Cites: Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):324-723842499
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Sep 11;109(37):E2415-2322869707
Cites: Evol Appl. 2008 Feb;1(1):95-11125567494
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 17;106 Suppl 2:19723-819897732
Cites: New Phytol. 2013 Jan;197(2):544-5423215904
Cites: Evol Appl. 2015 Dec;8(10):972-8726640522
Cites: Tree Physiol. 1994 Jul-Sep;14(7_9):797-80414967649
Cites: Nat Commun. 2014 Oct 06;5:510225283495
Cites: Science. 2011 Feb 4;331(6017):578-8221233349
PubMed ID
27885754 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world-The Roskilde recommendations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284633
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017 Jan;36(1):7-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Henriette Selck
Peter B Adamsen
Thomas Backhaus
Gary T Banta
Peter K H Bruce
G Allen Burton
Michael B Butts
Eva Boegh
John J Clague
Khuong V Dinh
Neelke Doorn
Jonas S Gunnarsson
Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Charles Hazlerigg
Agnieszka D Hunka
John Jensen
Yan Lin
Susana Loureiro
Simona Miraglia
Wayne R Munns
Farrokh Nadim
Annemette Palmqvist
Robert A Rämö
Lauren P Seaby
Kristian Syberg
Stine R Tangaa
Amalie Thit
Ronja Windfeld
Maciej Zalewski
Peter M Chapman
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017 Jan;36(1):7-16
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Congresses as topic
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Denmark
Ecology
Ecosystem
Humans
International Cooperation
Risk assessment
Risk Management
Abstract
Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk-Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:7-16. © 2016 SETAC.
PubMed ID
28024105 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cities as development drivers: from waste problems to energy recovery and climate change mitigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131647
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2011 Oct;29(10):1008-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Björn H Johnson
Tjalfe G Poulsen
Jens Aage Hansen
Martin Lehmann
Author Affiliation
Aalborg University, Department of Business & Management, Aalborg East, Denmark. bj@business.aau.dk
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2011 Oct;29(10):1008-17
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Gases
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Refuse Disposal - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Sweden
Waste Management - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Abstract
There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The 'urban order' may form a platform for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malm? in Sweden. It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems possible for modern European cities to contribute to greenhouse gas emission reduction by 15% through up to date technology and integrated waste management systems for material and energy recovery. Going from being part of the problem to providing solutions; however, is not an easy endeavour. It requires political will and leadership, supportive regulatory frameworks, realistic timetables/roadmaps, and a diverse set of stakeholders that can provide the right creative and innovative mix to make it possible.
PubMed ID
21890877 View in PubMed
Less detail

Copenhagen Accord: what if it's broken?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98481
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Feb 1;44(3):852
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2010
Author
Jerald L Schnoor
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Feb 1;44(3):852
Date
Feb-1-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Denmark
Developed Countries
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence
International Cooperation
PubMed ID
20043667 View in PubMed
Less detail

Copenhagen, climate change, revolutions and public health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98355
Source
Aust N Z J Public Health. 2009 Dec;33(6):505-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Alistair Woodward
Source
Aust N Z J Public Health. 2009 Dec;33(6):505-6
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Congresses as topic
Denmark
Humans
Public Health
PubMed ID
20078565 View in PubMed
Less detail

Definitions of event magnitudes, spatial scales, and goals for climate change adaptation and their importance for innovation and implementation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296851
Source
Water Res. 2018 11 01; 144:192-203
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
11-01-2018
Author
Herle Mo Madsen
Maj Munch Andersen
Martin Rygaard
Peter Steen Mikkelsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: hermom@env.dtu.dk.
Source
Water Res. 2018 11 01; 144:192-203
Date
11-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Cities
Climate change
Denmark
Environmental Policy
Floods
Goals
Inventions
Rain
Water
Abstract
We examine how core professional and institutional actors in the innovation system conceptualize climate change adaptation in regards to pluvial flooding-and how this influences innovation. We do this through a qualitative case study in Copenhagen with interconnected research rounds, including 32 semi-structured interviews, to strengthen the interpretation and analysis of qualitative data. We find that the term "climate change adaptation" currently has no clearly agreed definition in Copenhagen; instead, different actors use different conceptualizations of climate change adaptation according to the characteristics of their specific innovation and implementation projects. However, there is convergence among actors towards a new cognitive paradigm, whereby economic goals and multifunctionality are linked with cost-benefit analyses for adapting to extreme rain events on a surface water catchment scale. Differences in definitions can lead to both successful innovation and to conflict, and thus they affect the city's capacity for change. Our empirical work suggests that climate change adaptation can be characterized according to three attributes: event magnitudes (everyday, design, and extreme), spatial scales (small/local, medium/urban, and large/national-international), and (a wide range of) goals, thereby resulting in different technology choices.
PubMed ID
30031364 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effects of climate and nutrient load on the water quality of shallow lakes assessed through ensemble runs by PCLake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287901
Source
Ecol Appl. 2014;24(8):1926-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
Anders Nielsen
Dennis Trolle
Rikke Bjerring
Martin Søndergaard
Jørgen E Olesen
Jan H Janse
Wolf M Mooij
Erik Jeppesen
Source
Ecol Appl. 2014;24(8):1926-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Computer simulation
Conservation of Natural Resources
Denmark
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Fishes - physiology
Lakes - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Plants
Rivers - chemistry
Temperature
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical - chemistry
Water Quality
Abstract
Complex ecological models are used to predict the consequences of anticipated future changes in climate and nutrient loading for lake water quality. These models may, however, suffer from nonuniqueness in that various sets of model parameter values may yield equally satisfactory representations of the system being modeled, but when applied in future scenarios these sets of values may divert considerably in their simulated outcomes. Compilation of an ensemble of model runs allows us to account for simulation variability arising from model parameter estimates. Thus, we propose a new approach for aquatic ecological models creating a more robust prediction of future water quality. We used our ensemble approach in an application of the widely used PCLake model for Danish shallow Lake Arreskov, which during the past two decades has demonstrated frequent shifts between turbid and clear water states. Despite marked variability, the span of our ensemble runs encapsulated 70–90% of the observed variation in lake water quality. The model exercise demonstrates that future warming and increased nutrient loading lead to lower probability of a clear water, vegetation-rich state and greater likelihood of cyanobacteria dominance. In a 6.0°C warming scenario, for instance, the current nutrient loading of nitrogen and phosphorus must be reduced by about 75% to maintain the present ecological state of Lake Arreskov, but even in a near-future 2.0°C warming scenario, a higher probability of a turbid, cyanobacteria-dominated state is predicted. As managers may wish to determine the probability of achieving a certain ecological state, our proposed ensemble approach facilitates new ways of communicating future stressor impacts.
PubMed ID
29185663 View in PubMed
Less detail

Eutrophication effects on greenhouse gas fluxes from shallow-lake mesocosms override those of climate warming.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275430
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Dec;21(12):4449-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Thomas A Davidson
Joachim Audet
Jens-Christian Svenning
Torben L Lauridsen
Martin Søndergaard
Frank Landkildehus
Søren E Larsen
Erik Jeppesen
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Dec;21(12):4449-63
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Climate change
Denmark
Eutrophication
Greenhouse Effect
Lakes - analysis
Methane - analysis
Temperature
Abstract
Fresh waters make a disproportionately large contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with shallow lakes being particular hot spots. Given their global prevalence, how GHG fluxes from shallow lakes are altered by climate change may have profound implications for the global carbon cycle. Empirical evidence for the temperature dependence of the processes controlling GHG production in natural systems is largely based on the correlation between seasonal temperature variation and seasonal change in GHG fluxes. However, ecosystem-level GHG fluxes could be influenced by factors, which while varying seasonally with temperature are actually either indirectly related (e.g. primary producer biomass) or largely unrelated to temperature, for instance nutrient loading. Here, we present results from the longest running shallow-lake mesocosm experiment which demonstrate that nutrient concentrations override temperature as a control of both the total and individual GHG flux. Furthermore, testing for temperature treatment effects at low and high nutrient levels separately showed only one, rather weak, positive effect of temperature (CH4 flux at high nutrients). In contrast, at low nutrients, the CO2 efflux was lower in the elevated temperature treatments, with no significant effect on CH4 or N2 O fluxes. Further analysis identified possible indirect effects of temperature treatment. For example, at low nutrient levels, increased macrophyte abundance was associated with significantly reduced fluxes of both CH4 and CO2 for both total annual flux and monthly observation data. As macrophyte abundance was positively related to temperature treatment, this suggests the possibility of indirect temperature effects, via macrophyte abundance, on CH4 and CO2 flux. These findings indicate that fluxes of GHGs from shallow lakes may be controlled more by factors indirectly related to temperature, in this case nutrient concentration and the abundance of primary producers. Thus, at ecosystem scale, response to climate change may not follow predictions based on the temperature dependence of metabolic processes.
PubMed ID
26258771 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Curr Biol. 2010 Jan 12;20(1):R1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-12-2010
Author
Nigel Williams
Source
Curr Biol. 2010 Jan 12;20(1):R1-2
Date
Jan-12-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Denmark
United Nations
PubMed ID
20187265 View in PubMed
Less detail

"Greenwash" at the climate change summit in Copenhagen.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146351
Source
BMJ. 2009;339:b5616
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Michael Wilks
Source
BMJ. 2009;339:b5616
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Congresses as topic
Denmark
Humans
Leadership
PubMed ID
20042492 View in PubMed
Less detail

18 records – page 1 of 2.