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28 records – page 1 of 3.

Arctic marine mammal population status, sea ice habitat loss, and conservation recommendations for the 21st century.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270034
Source
Conserv Biol. 2015 Jun;29(3):724-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Kristin L Laidre
Harry Stern
Kit M Kovacs
Lloyd Lowry
Sue E Moore
Eric V Regehr
Steven H Ferguson
Øystein Wiig
Peter Boveng
Robyn P Angliss
Erik W Born
Dennis Litovka
Lori Quakenbush
Christian Lydersen
Dag Vongraven
Fernando Ugarte
Source
Conserv Biol. 2015 Jun;29(3):724-37
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Cetacea - physiology
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecosystem
Ice Cover
Pinnipedia - physiology
Population Density
Abstract
Arctic marine mammals (AMMs) are icons of climate change, largely because of their close association with sea ice. However, neither a circumpolar assessment of AMM status nor a standardized metric of sea ice habitat change is available. We summarized available data on abundance and trend for each AMM species and recognized subpopulation. We also examined species diversity, the extent of human use, and temporal trends in sea ice habitat for 12 regions of the Arctic by calculating the dates of spring sea ice retreat and fall sea ice advance from satellite data (1979-2013). Estimates of AMM abundance varied greatly in quality, and few studies were long enough for trend analysis. Of the AMM subpopulations, 78% (61 of 78) are legally harvested for subsistence purposes. Changes in sea ice phenology have been profound. In all regions except the Bering Sea, the duration of the summer (i.e., reduced ice) period increased by 5-10 weeks and by >20 weeks in the Barents Sea between 1979 and 2013. In light of generally poor data, the importance of human use, and forecasted environmental changes in the 21st century, we recommend the following for effective AMM conservation: maintain and improve comanagement by local, federal, and international partners; recognize spatial and temporal variability in AMM subpopulation response to climate change; implement monitoring programs with clear goals; mitigate cumulative impacts of increased human activity; and recognize the limits of current protected species legislation.
PubMed ID
25783745 View in PubMed
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Assessing the impacts of local knowledge and technology on climate change vulnerability in remote communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134649
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Mar;8(3):733-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Christopher Bone
Lilian Alessa
Mark Altaweel
Andrew Kliskey
Richard Lammers
Author Affiliation
Resilience and Adaptive Management Group, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. Christopher.Bone@nrcan.gc.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Mar;8(3):733-61
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska
Climate
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environment
Humans
Knowledge
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Rural Population
Technology
Water supply
Young Adult
Abstract
The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure) between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of 'knowledge-providers' influence community perception about changes to their local climate.
Notes
Cites: J Environ Manage. 2010 Aug;91(8):1718-2920417023
PubMed ID
21556176 View in PubMed
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Assessing the vulnerability of freshwater fishes to climate change in Newfoundland and Labrador.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300161
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208182
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Hope O Olusanya
M van Zyll de Jong
Author Affiliation
Environmental Policy Institute, Memorial University Grenfell Campus, Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208182
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animal Migration - physiology
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Decision Making
Ecological Parameter Monitoring - methods
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water
Newfoundland and Labrador
Reproduction - physiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Freshwater fish populations are rapidly declining globally due to the impacts of rapid climate change and existing non-climatic anthropogenic stressors. In response to these drivers, freshwater fishes are responding by shifting their distribution range, altering the timing of migration and spawning and through demographic processes. By 2050, the mean daily air temperature is predicted to increase by 2 to 3 degrees C in insular Newfoundland and by 3 to 4 degrees C in Labrador. Mean daily precipitation is also projected to increase in all locations, with increased intensity projected for several regions. To mitigate negative consequences of these changes, managers require analytical approaches that describe the vulnerability of fish to climate change. To address this need, the current study adopts the National Marine Fisheries Service vulnerability assessment framework to characterize the vulnerability of freshwater fishes in Newfoundland and Labrador. Twelve vulnerability indicators were developed from an extensive literature review and applied to the assessment. Experts were solicited using an online questionnaire survey and scores for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were collated and analyzed to derive a final vulnerability score and rank for each species. The analysis showed one species to be of high-very high vulnerability, two species were highly vulnerable while four species were moderately vulnerable to climate change. The result provides insight into the factors that drive vulnerability of freshwater fishes in the region, this information is significant to decision-makers and other stakeholders engaged in managing freshwater fish resources in Newfoundland and Labrador.
PubMed ID
30507972 View in PubMed
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Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294930
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 11; 23(11):4483-4496
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2017
Author
Peter J Mumby
James N Sanchirico
Kenneth Broad
Michael W Beck
Peter Tyedmers
Megan Morikawa
Thomas A Okey
Larry B Crowder
Elizabeth A Fulton
Denny Kelso
Joanie A Kleypas
Stephan B Munch
Polita Glynn
Kathryn Matthews
Jane Lubchenco
Author Affiliation
Marine Spatial Ecology Lab & ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 11; 23(11):4483-4496
Date
11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Coral Reefs
Ecosystem
Fishes
Humans
Motivation
Oceans and Seas
Abstract
Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues. Using diverse case studies, including the decline of coral reefs, coastal defences from flooding, shifting fish stocks and the emergence of new shipping opportunities in the Arctic, we argue that human interests are better served by increased investments in resource management. But greater government investment in management does not simply mean more of "business-as-usual." Management needs to become more flexible, better at anticipating and responding to surprise, and able to facilitate change where it is desirable. A range of technological, economic, communication and governance solutions exists to help transform management. While not all have been tested, judicious application of the most appropriate solutions should help humanity adapt to novel circumstances and seek opportunity where possible.
PubMed ID
28447373 View in PubMed
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Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277004
Source
Ambio. 2016 Feb;45 Suppl 2:140-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Lucy Rist
Adam Felton
Erland Mårald
Lars Samuelsson
Tomas Lundmark
Ola Rosvall
Source
Ambio. 2016 Feb;45 Suppl 2:140-51
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environmental Policy
Forestry - methods - trends
Forests
Risk
Sweden
Uncertainty
Abstract
There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.
Notes
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Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 8;100(14):8086-9112777623
PubMed ID
26744049 View in PubMed
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Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265134
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 5;112(18):5738-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-5-2015
Author
Jingjing Liang
Mo Zhou
Patrick C Tobin
A David McGuire
Peter B Reich
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 5;112(18):5738-43
Date
May-5-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Biodiversity
Biomass
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Forests
Models, Theoretical
Plant Development
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Plants - classification
Poverty
Species Specificity
Trees
Abstract
The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.
Notes
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 16;110(29):11911-623818582
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PubMed ID
25901325 View in PubMed
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Carbon-equivalent metrics for albedo changes in land management contexts: relevance of the time dimension.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287684
Source
Ecol Appl. 2016 Sep;26(6):1868-1880
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Ryan M Bright
Wiley Bogren
Pierre Bernier
Rasmus Astrup
Source
Ecol Appl. 2016 Sep;26(6):1868-1880
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atmosphere - chemistry
Biophysical Phenomena
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide
Climate
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Forestry
Forests
Models, Biological
Norway
Time Factors
Trees - classification
Abstract
Surface albedo is an important physical property by which the land surface regulates climate. A wide and growing body of literature suggests that failing to account for surface albedo can result in suboptimal or even counterproductive climate-motivated policies of the land-based sectors. As such, albedo changes are increasingly included in climate impact assessments of forestry and other land sector projects through conversion of radiative forcings into carbon or carbon dioxide equivalents. However, the prevailing methodology does not sufficiently accommodate dynamic albedo changes on land or CO2 in the atmosphere. We present two new metrics designed to address these deficiencies, referring to them as the time-dependent emissions equivalent and the time-independent emissions equivalent of albedo changes. We demonstrate their application in various land management contexts and discuss their merits and uncertainties.
PubMed ID
27755703 View in PubMed
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Challenges in assessing biological recovery from acidification in Swedish lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259825
Source
Ambio. 2014;43 Suppl 1:19-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kerstin Holmgren
Source
Ambio. 2014;43 Suppl 1:19-29
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biota - drug effects
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environmental Monitoring - standards
Fishes - growth & development - physiology
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lakes - analysis
Population Dynamics
Sweden
Water Pollution, Chemical - adverse effects
Abstract
Since the 1980s, Swedish lakes have in general become less acidified. Assessment of biological recovery is, however, hampered by poor pre-acidification data, confounding effects of climate change, and few lakes with annual sampling of fish and other organisms. Only three critically acidified, but non-limed, lakes had two decades of fish monitoring. The lakes had not yet recovered to pre-industrial chemical targets. Fish had low species richness compared to other organism groups. Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and/or European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were the dominant fish species, and the acid-sensitive roach had been lost from one of the lakes. Calcium decreased, possibly approaching pre-acidification concentrations, but exceeded minimum levels needed to sustain some Daphnia species. High or increasing levels of total organic carbon, likely due to reduced acidification and climate change, might influence the biological communities in unexpected ways, for example, facilitating more frequent occurrence of the invasive algae Gonyostomum semen.
Notes
Cites: Ambio. 2003 Apr;32(3):165-912839190
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Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e6255723667489
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Sep;20(9):2752-6424535943
PubMed ID
25403967 View in PubMed
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Challenges to adaptation in northernmost Europe as a result of global climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143358
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):81-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Christer Nilsson
Roland Jansson
E Carina H Keskitalo
Tatiana Vlassova
Marja-Liisa Sutinen
Jon Moen
F Stuart Chapin
Author Affiliation
Landscape Ecology Group, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. christer.nilsson@emg.umu.se
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):81-4
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Commerce
Conservation of Natural Resources
Europe
Finland
Geography
Humans
Norway
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
World Health
Notes
Cites: Ambio. 2006 Jun;35(4):198-20216944645
Cites: Ambio. 2006 Jun;35(4):176-8116944642
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1134:201-1218566095
Cites: Sci Am. 2007 Jun;296(6):4317663223
PubMed ID
20496656 View in PubMed
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The changing contribution of top-down and bottom-up limitation of mesopredators during 220 years of land use and climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286122
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2017 May;86(3):566-576
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Marianne Pasanen-Mortensen
Bodil Elmhagen
Harto Lindén
Roger Bergström
Märtha Wallgren
Ype van der Velde
Sara A O Cousins
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2017 May;86(3):566-576
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Finland
Food chain
Foxes - physiology
Lynx - physiology
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Sweden
Abstract
Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain herbivore/mesopredator limitation, if bottom-up change relaxes resource constraints? Here, we explore changes in mesopredator (red fox Vulpes vulpes) abundance over 220 years in response to eradication and recovery of an apex predator (Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx), and changes in land use and climate which are linked to resource availability. A three-step approach was used. First, recent data from Finland and Sweden were modelled to estimate linear effects of lynx density, land use and winter temperature on fox density. Second, lynx density, land use and winter temperature was estimated in a 22 650 km(2) focal area in boreal and boreo-nemoral Sweden in the years 1830, 1920, 2010 and 2050. Third, the models and estimates were used to project historic and future fox densities in the focal area. Projected fox density was lowest in 1830 when lynx density was high, winters cold and the proportion of cropland low. Fox density peaked in 1920 due to lynx eradication, a mesopredator release boosted by favourable bottom-up changes - milder winters and cropland expansion. By 2010, lynx recolonization had reduced fox density, but it remained higher than in 1830, partly due to the bottom-up changes. Comparing 1830 to 2010, the contribution of top-down limitation decreased, while environment enrichment relaxed bottom-up limitation. Future scenarios indicated that by 2050, lynx density would have to increase by 79% to compensate for a projected climate-driven increase in fox density. We highlight that although top-down limitation in theory can buffer bottom-up change, this requires compensatory changes in apex predator abundance. Hence apex predator recolonization/recovery to historical levels would not be sufficient to compensate for widespread changes in climate and land use, which have relaxed the resource constraints for many herbivores and mesopredators. Variation in bottom-up conditions may also contribute to context dependence in apex predator effects.
PubMed ID
28075011 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.