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Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294930
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 11; 23(11):4483-4496
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2017
Author
Peter J Mumby
James N Sanchirico
Kenneth Broad
Michael W Beck
Peter Tyedmers
Megan Morikawa
Thomas A Okey
Larry B Crowder
Elizabeth A Fulton
Denny Kelso
Joanie A Kleypas
Stephan B Munch
Polita Glynn
Kathryn Matthews
Jane Lubchenco
Author Affiliation
Marine Spatial Ecology Lab & ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 11; 23(11):4483-4496
Date
11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Coral Reefs
Ecosystem
Fishes
Humans
Motivation
Oceans and Seas
Abstract
Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues. Using diverse case studies, including the decline of coral reefs, coastal defences from flooding, shifting fish stocks and the emergence of new shipping opportunities in the Arctic, we argue that human interests are better served by increased investments in resource management. But greater government investment in management does not simply mean more of "business-as-usual." Management needs to become more flexible, better at anticipating and responding to surprise, and able to facilitate change where it is desirable. A range of technological, economic, communication and governance solutions exists to help transform management. While not all have been tested, judicious application of the most appropriate solutions should help humanity adapt to novel circumstances and seek opportunity where possible.
PubMed ID
28447373 View in PubMed
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A review of global environmental mercury processes in response to human and natural perturbations: Changes of emissions, climate, and land use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295713
Source
Ambio. 2018 Mar; 47(2):116-140
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Daniel Obrist
Jane L Kirk
Lei Zhang
Elsie M Sunderland
Martin Jiskra
Noelle E Selin
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, One University Ave, Lowell, MA, 01854, USA. daniel_obrist@uml.edu.
Source
Ambio. 2018 Mar; 47(2):116-140
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
China
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - chemistry - toxicity
Europe
Humans
India
Indian Ocean
Mercury - analysis - chemistry - toxicity
Abstract
We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cycling. New analytical techniques, such as Hg stable isotope characterization, provide novel constraints of sources and transformation processes. The major global Hg reservoirs that are, and continue to be, affected by anthropogenic activities include the atmosphere (4.4-5.3 Gt), terrestrial environments (particularly soils: 250-1000 Gg), and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., oceans: 270-450 Gg). Declines in anthropogenic Hg emissions between 1990 and 2010 have led to declines in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and HgII wet deposition in Europe and the US (- 1.5 to - 2.2% per year). Smaller atmospheric Hg0 declines (- 0.2% per year) have been reported in high northern latitudes, but not in the southern hemisphere, while increasing atmospheric Hg loads are still reported in East Asia. New observations and updated models now suggest high concentrations of oxidized HgII in the tropical and subtropical free troposphere where deep convection can scavenge these HgII reservoirs. As a result, up to 50% of total global wet HgII deposition has been predicted to occur to tropical oceans. Ocean Hg0 evasion is a large source of present-day atmospheric Hg (approximately 2900 Mg/year; range 1900-4200 Mg/year). Enhanced seawater Hg0 levels suggest enhanced Hg0 ocean evasion in the intertropical convergence zone, which may be linked to high HgII deposition. Estimates of gaseous Hg0 emissions to the atmosphere over land, long considered a critical Hg source, have been revised downward, and most terrestrial environments now are considered net sinks of atmospheric Hg due to substantial Hg uptake by plants. Litterfall deposition by plants is now estimated at 1020-1230 Mg/year globally. Stable isotope analysis and direct flux measurements provide evidence that in many ecosystems Hg0 deposition via plant inputs dominates, accounting for 57-94% of Hg in soils. Of global aquatic Hg releases, around 50% are estimated to occur in China and India, where Hg drains into the West Pacific and North Indian Oceans. A first inventory of global freshwater Hg suggests that inland freshwater Hg releases may be dominated by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM; approximately 880 Mg/year), industrial and wastewater releases (220 Mg/year), and terrestrial mobilization (170-300 Mg/year). For pelagic ocean regions, the dominant source of Hg is atmospheric deposition; an exception is the Arctic Ocean, where riverine and coastal erosion is likely the dominant source. Ocean water Hg concentrations in the North Atlantic appear to have declined during the last several decades but have increased since the mid-1980s in the Pacific due to enhanced atmospheric deposition from the Asian continent. Finally, we provide examples of ongoing and anticipated changes in Hg cycling due to emission, climate, and land use changes. It is anticipated that future emissions changes will be strongly dependent on ASGM, as well as energy use scenarios and technology requirements implemented under the Minamata Convention. We predict that land use and climate change impacts on Hg cycling will be large and inherently linked to changes in ecosystem function and global atmospheric and ocean circulations. Our ability to predict multiple and simultaneous changes in future Hg global cycling and human exposure is rapidly developing but requires further enhancement.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29388126 View in PubMed
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