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Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265134
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 5;112(18):5738-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-5-2015
Author
Jingjing Liang
Mo Zhou
Patrick C Tobin
A David McGuire
Peter B Reich
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 5;112(18):5738-43
Date
May-5-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Biodiversity
Biomass
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Forests
Models, Theoretical
Plant Development
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Plants - classification
Poverty
Species Specificity
Trees
Abstract
The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25901325 View in PubMed
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Climate change in Kivalina, Alaska: strategies for community health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296263
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and United State Indian Health Service Cooperative.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2011
Climate Change in Kivalina, Alaska Strategies for Community Health ANTHC Center for Climate and Health Funded by Through adaptation, negative health effects can be prevented. Cover Art: Whale Bone Mask by Larry Adams © Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC), January 2011. Advisors
  1 document  
Author
Brubaker, Michael
Berner, James
Bell, Jacob
Warren, John
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and United State Indian Health Service Cooperative.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
7989753
Keywords
Alaska
Kivalina
Climate change
Subsistence
Health web
Sanitation
Documents

Climate-Change-HIA-Report_Kivalina.pdf

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Climate change in Point Hope, Alaska: strategies for community health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296264
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and United States Indian Health Service Cooperative. 39 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2010
Climate Change in Point Hope, Alaska Strategies for Community Health ANTHC Center for Climate and Health Funded by ANTHC Advisors: Tim Gilbert MPH Jeff Smith MS Mike Bradley DVM MPH Kathy Graves PhD Steve Weaver PE Gary Ferguson ND Jennifer Johnson MPH Desirae Roehl Troy Ritter MPH Aaron
  1 document  
Author
Brubaker, Michael
Berner, James
Bell, Jacob
Warren, John
Rolin, Alicia
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and United States Indian Health Service Cooperative. 39 p.
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
6285714
Keywords
Alaska
Point Hope
Climate change
Sea level
Health web
Subsistence
Erosion
Permafrost
Water sanitation
Documents

Climate-Change-HIA-Report_Point-Hope_0.pdf

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Climate change in Selawik, Alaska: strategies for community health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296266
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC). 42 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2012
Climate Change in Selawik, Alaska Strategies for Community Health ANTHC Center for Climate and Health Funded by jobradley Stamp © Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC), May 2012. Through adaptation, negative health effects can be prevented. Report prepared by: Michael Brubaker
  1 document  
Author
Brubaker, Michael
Chavan, Prithviraj
Berner, James
Black, Mike
Warren, John
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC). 42 p.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
9077605
Keywords
Alaska
Selawik
Climate change
Water sanitation
Health web
Food security
Permafrost
Erosion
Documents

Climate-Change-in-Selawik-Alaska.pdf

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Foreword: Synthesis of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279926
Source
Ambio. 2017 Feb;46(Suppl 1):1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017

Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267973
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Apr;21(4):1634-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Mark J Lara
A David McGuire
Eugenie S Euskirchen
Craig E Tweedie
Kenneth M Hinkel
Alexei N Skurikhin
Vladimir E Romanovsky
Guido Grosse
W Robert Bolton
Helene Genet
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Apr;21(4):1634-51
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Climate change
Geological Processes
Methane - analysis
Seasons
Soil - chemistry
Tundra
Abstract
The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006-2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between -438.3 and -1366 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux at 28.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2 uptake (-166.9 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux (2.8 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)) with geomorphic change from low to high center polygons, cumulatively resulting in an estimated negative feedback to warming during peak growing season.
PubMed ID
25258295 View in PubMed
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Postscript: The future of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring programme.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279927
Source
Ambio. 2017 Feb;46(Suppl 1):174-177
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017

Source drinking water challenges changes to an arctic tundra lake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297347
Source
Center for Climate and Health. CCH bulletin no. 2.
Publication Type
Article
Date
October 19, 2009
record local observations related to climate change and to explore adaptive strategies for community health. The purpose of this paper is to identify vulnerabilities and raise awareness about an emerging environmental health issue, and to identify potential adaptation strategies. Background
  1 document  
Author
Brubaker, Michael
Rolin, Alicia
Bell, Jacob
Warren, John
Source
Center for Climate and Health. CCH bulletin no. 2.
Date
October 19, 2009
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1653510
Keywords
Alaska
Point Hope
Drinking Water
Climate change
Abstract
This paper reports on a special health concern identified in Point Hope, Alaska during a recent Climate and Health Assessment: disruption of drinking water treatment influenced by temperature driven increases in organic material in an Arctic tundra lake. Blooms of organic material have been observed in the past in the source water lake in Point Hope, but conditions have been extreme over the last two years. If warm temperatures continue, organic blooms will become a reoccurring problem for Point Hope and other communities that depend on tundra lakes for their water supply. Analysis of source water chemistry and biology is recommended, as is an analysis of possible adaptive operational procedures or design modifications that could improve water system efficiency.
Documents
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Towards quantifying the glacial runoff signal in the freshwater input to Tyrolerfjord-Young Sound, NE Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279929
Source
Ambio. 2017 Feb;46(Suppl 1):146-159
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Michele Citterio
Mikael K Sejr
Peter L Langen
Ruth H Mottram
Jakob Abermann
Signe Hillerup Larsen
Kirstine Skov
Magnus Lund
Source
Ambio. 2017 Feb;46(Suppl 1):146-159
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecological Parameter Monitoring
Fresh Water
Greenland
Ice Cover
Models, Theoretical
Snow
Temperature
Weather
Abstract
Terrestrial freshwater runoff strongly influences physical and biogeochemical processes at the fjord scale and can have global impacts when considered at the Greenland scale. We investigate the performance of the HIRHAM5 regional climate model over the catchments delivering freshwater to Tyrolerfjord and Young Sound by comparing to the unique Greenland Ecological Monitoring database of in situ observations from this region. Based on these findings, we estimate and discuss the fraction of runoff originating from glacierized and non-glacierized land delivered at the daily scale between 1996 and 2008. We find that glaciers contributed on average 50-80% of annual terrestrial runoff when considering different sections of Tyrolerfjord-Young Sound, but snowpack depletion on land and consequently runoff happens about one month earlier in the model than observed in the field. The temporal shift in the model is a likely explanation why summer surface salinity in the inner fjord did not correlate to modelled runoff.
PubMed ID
28116690 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.