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Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108298
Source
Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):519-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2-2013
Author
Eric Post
Uma S Bhatt
Cecilia M Bitz
Jedediah F Brodie
Tara L Fulton
Mark Hebblewhite
Jeffrey Kerby
Susan J Kutz
Ian Stirling
Donald A Walker
Author Affiliation
The Polar Center, and Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. esp10@psu.edu
Source
Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):519-24
Date
Aug-2-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquatic Organisms
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Humans
Ice Cover
Invertebrates
Plant Development
Seawater
Vertebrates
Abstract
After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes.
PubMed ID
23908231 View in PubMed
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Cumulative geoecological effects of 62 years of infrastructure and climate change in ice-rich permafrost landscapes, Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262859
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Apr;20(4):1211-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Martha K Raynolds
Donald A Walker
Kenneth J Ambrosius
Jerry Brown
Kaye R Everett
Mikhail Kanevskiy
Gary P Kofinas
Vladimir E Romanovsky
Yuri Shur
Patrick J Webber
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Apr;20(4):1211-24
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Ice
Oil and Gas Fields
Soil
Temperature
Abstract
Many areas of the Arctic are simultaneously affected by rapid climate change and rapid industrial development. These areas are likely to increase in number and size as sea ice melts and abundant Arctic natural resources become more accessible. Documenting the changes that have already occurred is essential to inform management approaches to minimize the impacts of future activities. Here, we determine the cumulative geoecological effects of 62?years (1949-2011) of infrastructure- and climate-related changes in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, the oldest and most extensive industrial complex in the Arctic, and an area with extensive ice-rich permafrost that is extraordinarily sensitive to climate change. We demonstrate that thermokarst has recently affected broad areas of the entire region, and that a sudden increase in the area affected began shortly after 1990 corresponding to a rapid rise in regional summer air temperatures and related permafrost temperatures. We also present a conceptual model that describes how infrastructure-related factors, including road dust and roadside flooding are contributing to more extensive thermokarst in areas adjacent to roads and gravel pads. We mapped the historical infrastructure changes for the Alaska North Slope oilfields for 10 dates from the initial oil discovery in 1968-2011. By 2010, over 34% of the intensively mapped area was affected by oil development. In addition, between 1990 and 2001, coincident with strong atmospheric warming during the 1990s, 19% of the remaining natural landscapes (excluding areas covered by infrastructure, lakes and river floodplains) exhibited expansion of thermokarst features resulting in more abundant small ponds, greater microrelief, more active lakeshore erosion and increased landscape and habitat heterogeneity. This transition to a new geoecological regime will have impacts to wildlife habitat, local residents and industry.
PubMed ID
24339207 View in PubMed
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