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Arctic pollution issues: A state of the Arctic environment report

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99515
Date
1997
  1 document     1 website  
Author
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
Date
1997
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Acidification
Arctic haze
Arctic residents
Climate change
Contaminant pathways
Contamination levels, trends, and effects
Geographical areas of concern
Heavy metals
Human exposure
Human health
Indigenous peoples
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
Petroleum hydrocarbons
Polar ecology
Pollution
Potential threats
Radioactivity
Abstract
The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), established in 1991 under the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS), was given the responsibility to monitor the levels and assess the effects of selected anthropogenic pollutants in all compartments of the Arctic. This is the first AMAP assessment report, and it represents a collaborative effort involving over 400scientists and administrators. It is based on AMAP-coordinatednational and international monitoring programs within the eight Arctic countries, in combination with data and information from several research programs, including contributions from non-Arctic countries and international organizations.
Notes
Print copy available in UAA/APU Alaskana collection: QH545.A1 A72 1997. Print copy also available in ARLIS general collection: QH84.1.A73 1997
Also available to download from AMAP
Online Resources
Documents

ArcticPollutionIssues.pdf

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Source
Pages 37-46 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
specific environment. Acclimatization (12) is used to describe the physiological changes induced by can- plex factors such as seasonal and climatic changes, while acclimation describes the changes induced by a single en- vironmental factor, as in the controlled experiment. Many authors use the term
  1 document  
Author
Cooper, KE
Author Affiliation
Division of Medical Physiology, University of Alberta, Calgary, Canada
Source
Pages 37-46 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Acclimation
Acclimatization
Adaptation
Cold exposure
Cold-induced vasodilatation
Cold pressor response
Energy expenditure
Fatty acids
Food intake
Limbic system
Metabolic changes
Microclimate
Non-shivering thermogenesis
Peripheral thermoregulatory responses
Seasonal and climatic changes
Threshold sensation
Documents
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Assessing the impacts of local knowledge and technology on climate change vulnerability in remote communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134649
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Mar;8(3):733-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Christopher Bone
Lilian Alessa
Mark Altaweel
Andrew Kliskey
Richard Lammers
Author Affiliation
Resilience and Adaptive Management Group, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. Christopher.Bone@nrcan.gc.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Mar;8(3):733-61
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska
Climate
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environment
Humans
Knowledge
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Rural Population
Technology
Water supply
Young Adult
Abstract
The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure) between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of 'knowledge-providers' influence community perception about changes to their local climate.
Notes
Cites: J Environ Manage. 2010 Aug;91(8):1718-2920417023
PubMed ID
21556176 View in PubMed
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Slow science: the value of long ocean biogeochemistry records.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257334
Source
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-28-2014
Author
Stephanie A Henson
Author Affiliation
National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK s.henson@noc.ac.uk.
Source
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025)
Date
Sep-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biology - methods
Carbon Cycle
Chemistry - methods
Climate change
Food chain
Geology - methods
Models, Biological
Oceanography - methods
Oceans and Seas
Time Factors
Abstract
Sustained observations (SOs) have provided invaluable information on the ocean's biology and biogeochemistry for over 50 years. They continue to play a vital role in elucidating the functioning of the marine ecosystem, particularly in the light of ongoing climate change. Repeated, consistent observations have provided the opportunity to resolve temporal and/or spatial variability in ocean biogeochemistry, which has driven exploration of the factors controlling biological parameters and processes. Here, I highlight some of the key breakthroughs in biological oceanography that have been enabled by SOs, which include areas such as trophic dynamics, understanding variability, improved biogeochemical models and the role of ocean biology in the global carbon cycle. In the near future, SOs are poised to make progress on several fronts, including detecting climate change effects on ocean biogeochemistry, high-resolution observations of physical-biological interactions and greater observational capability in both the mesopelagic zone and harsh environments, such as the Arctic. We are now entering a new era for biological SOs, one in which our motivations have evolved from the need to acquire basic understanding of the ocean's state and variability, to a need to understand ocean biogeochemistry in the context of increasing pressure in the form of climate change, overfishing and eutrophication.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25157192 View in PubMed
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Changing planet, changing health: How the climate crisis threatens our health and what we can do about it

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101214
Source
Berkeley: University of California Press. 355 pp.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2011
Author
Epstein, PR
Ferber, D
Source
Berkeley: University of California Press. 355 pp.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Climatic changes
Medical climatology
Abstract
Written by a physician and world expert on climate and health and an award-winning science journalist, the book reveals the surprising links between global warming and cholera, malaria, lyme disease, asthma, and other health threats.
Notes
UAA/APU Consortium Library General Collection: WB700.E67 2011
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Understanding global climate change: paleoclimate perspective from the world's highest mountains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101713
Source
Proc Am Philos Soc. 2010 Jun;154(2):133-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Lonnie G Thompson
Author Affiliation
The Ohio State University, USA.
Source
Proc Am Philos Soc. 2010 Jun;154(2):133-57
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agricultural Irrigation
Altitude
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecosystem
Geography
Humans
Ice Cover
Paleontology
Power Plants
Water supply
Abstract
Glaciers are among the world's best recorders of, and first responders to, natural and anthropogenic climate change and provide a time perspective for current climatic and environmental variations. Over the last 50 years such records have been recovered from the polar regions as well as low-latitude, high-elevation ice fields. Analyses of these ice cores and of the glaciers from which they have been drilled have yielded three lines of evidence for past and present abrupt climate change: (1) the temperature and precipitation histories recorded in the glaciers as revealed by the climate records extracted from the ice cores; (2) the accelerating loss of the glaciers themselves; and (3) the uncovering of ancient fauna and flora from the margins of the glaciers as a result of their recent melting, thus illustrating the significance of the current ice loss. The current melting of high-altitude, low-latitude ice fields is consistent with model predictions for a vertical amplification of temperature in the tropics. The ongoing rapid retreat of the world's mountain glaciers, as well as the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, is not only contributing to global sea level rise, but also threatening fresh-water supplies in many of the most populous regions. More recently, strong evidence has appeared for the acceleration of the rate of ice loss in the tropics, which especially presents a clear and present danger to water supplies for at-risk populations in South America and Asia. The human response to this issue, however, is not so clear, for although the evidence from both data and models becomes more compelling, the rate of global CO2 emissions continues to accelerate. Climatologically, we are in unfamiliar territory, and the world's ice cover is responding dramatically. The loss of glaciers, which can be viewed as the world's water towers, threatens water resources that are essential for hydroelectric power, crop irrigation, municipal water supplies, and even tourism. As these glaciers are disappearing, we are also losing very valuable paleoclimate archives.
PubMed ID
21553594 View in PubMed
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Optimization of high-resolution continuous flow analysis for transient climate signals in ice cores.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101741
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 May 15;45(10):4483-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2011
Author
Matthias Bigler
Anders Svensson
Ernesto Kettner
Paul Vallelonga
Maibritt E Nielsen
Jørgen Peder Steffensen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. bigler@climate.unibe.ch
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 May 15;45(10):4483-9
Date
May-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols - analysis
Air Pollutants - analysis
Antarctic Regions
Climate change
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Greenland
Ice - analysis
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds - analysis
Abstract
Over the past two decades, continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems have been refined and widely used to measure aerosol constituents in polar and alpine ice cores in very high-depth resolution. Here we present a newly designed system consisting of sodium, ammonium, dust particles, and electrolytic meltwater conductivity detection modules. The system is optimized for high-resolution determination of transient signals in thin layers of deep polar ice cores. Based on standard measurements and by comparing sections of early Holocene and glacial ice from Greenland, we find that the new system features a depth resolution in the ice of a few millimeters which is considerably better than other CFA systems. Thus, the new system can resolve ice strata down to 10 mm thickness and has the potential of identifying annual layers in both Greenland and Antarctic ice cores throughout the last glacial cycle.
PubMed ID
21504155 View in PubMed
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Heating up relations between cold fish: competition modifies responses to climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101756
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2011 May;80(3):505-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Mark C Urban
Robert D Holt
Sarah E Gilman
Joshua Tewksbury
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. mark.urban@uconn.edu
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2011 May;80(3):505-7
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Climate change
Competitive Behavior
Fresh Water
Norway
Trout
Abstract
Most predictions about species responses to climate change ignore species interactions. Helland and colleagues (2011) test whether this assumption is valid by evaluating whether ice cover affects competition between brown trout [Salmo trutta (L.)] and Arctic charr [Salvelinus alpines (L.)]. They show that increasing ice cover correlates with lower trout biomass when Arctic charr co-occur, but not in charr's absence. In experiments, charr grew better in the cold, dark environments that typify ice-covered lakes. Decreasing ice cover with warmer winters could mean more trout and fewer charr. More generally, their results provide an excellent example, suggesting that species interactions can strongly modify responses to climate change.
Notes
RefSource: J Anim Ecol. 2011 May;80(3):539-47
PubMed ID
21463300 View in PubMed
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Molecular-level methods for monitoring soil organic matter responses to global climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101780
Source
J Environ Monit. 2011 May;13(5):1246-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Xiaojuan Feng
Myrna J Simpson
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada. xfeng@erdw.ethz.ch
Source
J Environ Monit. 2011 May;13(5):1246-54
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Atmosphere - chemistry
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Climate change
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Nitrogen - analysis
Organic Chemicals - chemistry
Soil - analysis - chemistry
Temperature
Abstract
Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the most complex natural mixtures on earth. It plays a critical role in many ecosystem functions and is directly responsible for sustaining life on our planet. However, due to its chemical heterogeneity, SOM composition at molecular-level is still not completely clear. Consequently, the response of SOM to global climate change is difficult to predict. Here we highlight applications of two complementary molecular-level methods (biomarkers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) for ascertaining SOM responses to various environmental changes. Biomarker methods that measure highly specific molecules determine the source and decomposition stage of SOM components. However, biomarkers only make up a small fraction of SOM components because much of SOM is non-extractable. By comparison, (13)C solid-state NMR allows measurement of SOM in its entirety with little or no pretreatment but suffers from poor resolution (due to overlapping of SOM components) and insensitivity, and thus subtle changes in SOM composition may not always be detected. Alternatively, (1)H solution-state NMR methods offer an added benefit of improved resolution and sensitivity but can only analyze SOM components that are fully soluble (humic type molecules) in an NMR compatible solvent. We discuss how these complementary methods have been employed to monitor SOM responses to: soil warming in a temperate forest, elevated atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate forest, and permafrost thawing in the Canadian High Arctic. These molecular-level methods allow some novel and important observations of soil dynamics and ecosystem function in a changing climate.
PubMed ID
21416081 View in PubMed
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[Climate change and hygienic assessment of weather conditions in Omsk and the Omsk Region].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101808
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Nov-Dec;(6):18-20
Publication Type
Article
Author
Zh V Gudinova
I S Akimova
A V Klochikhina
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Nov-Dec;(6):18-20
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Hygiene
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Siberia
Weather
Abstract
The paper deals with trends in climate change in the Omsk Region: the increases in average annual air temperatures and rainfall, which are attended by the higher number of abnormal weather events, as shown by the data of the Omsk Regional Board, Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. There is information on weather severity in 2008: there was mild weather in spring and severe weather in winter, in January in particular. A survey of physicians has revealed that medical workers are concerned about climate problems and global warming and ascertained weather events mostly affecting the population's health. People worry most frequently about a drastic temperature drop or rise (as high as 71%), atmospheric pressure change (53%), and "when it is too hot in summer (47%).
PubMed ID
21381358 View in PubMed
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626 records – page 1 of 63.