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587 records – page 1 of 59.

Source
Sci Am. 2013 Nov;309(5):16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Arielle Duhaime-Ross
Source
Sci Am. 2013 Nov;309(5):16
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Geographic Mapping
Geography
Humans
PubMed ID
24283006 View in PubMed
Less detail

Agroecosystems shape population genetic structure of the greenhouse whitefly in Northern and Southern Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258712
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:165
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Irina Ovcarenko
Despoina Evripidis Kapantaidaki
Leena Lindström
Nathalie Gauthier
Anastasia Tsagkarakou
Karelyn Emily Knott
Irene Vänninen
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:165
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Ecosystem
Female
Finland
Gene Flow
Genetics, Population
Greece
Hemiptera - classification - genetics
Microsatellite Repeats
Abstract
To predict further invasions of pests it is important to understand what factors contribute to the genetic structure of their populations. Cosmopolitan pest species are ideal for studying how different agroecosystems affect population genetic structure within a species at different climatic extremes. We undertook the first population genetic study of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), a cosmopolitan invasive herbivore, and examined the genetic structure of this species in Northern and Southern Europe. In Finland, cold temperatures limit whiteflies to greenhouses and prevent them from overwintering in nature, and in Greece, milder temperatures allow whiteflies to inhabit both fields and greenhouses year round, providing a greater potential for connectivity among populations. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped 1274 T. vaporariorum females collected from 18 greenhouses in Finland and eight greenhouses as well as eight fields in Greece.
Populations from Finland were less diverse than those from Greece, suggesting that Greek populations are larger and subjected to fewer bottlenecks. Moreover, there was significant population genetic structure in both countries that was explained by different factors. Habitat (field vs. greenhouse) together with longitude explained genetic structure in Greece, whereas in Finland, genetic structure was explained by host plant species. Furthermore, there was no temporal genetic structure among populations in Finland, suggesting that year-round populations are able to persist in greenhouses.
Taken together our results show that greenhouse agroecosystems can limit gene flow among populations in both climate zones. Fragmented populations in greenhouses could allow for efficient pest management. However, pest persistence in both climate zones, coupled with increasing opportunities for naturalization in temperate latitudes due to climate change, highlight challenges for the management of cosmopolitan pests in Northern and Southern Europe.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25266268 View in PubMed
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Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258751
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Oct 15;87(1-2):22-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2014
Author
A. Mjelde
K. Martinsen
M. Eide
O. Endresen
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Oct 15;87(1-2):22-8
Date
Oct-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants
Models, Theoretical
Ships
Soot
Spacecraft
Abstract
Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established.
PubMed ID
25168183 View in PubMed
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Present-day genetic structure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Icelandic rivers and ice-cap retreat models.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259015
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e86809
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kristinn Olafsson
Christophe Pampoulie
Sigridur Hjorleifsdottir
Sigurdur Gudjonsson
Gudmundur O Hreggvidsson
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e86809
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Climate
Climate change
Cluster analysis
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
Genotype
Ice Cover
Iceland
Microsatellite Repeats - genetics
Models, Genetic
Phylogeny
Rivers
Salmo salar - classification - genetics
Abstract
Due to an improved understanding of past climatological conditions, it has now become possible to study the potential concordance between former climatological models and present-day genetic structure. Genetic variability was assessed in 26 samples from different rivers of Atlantic salmon in Iceland (total of 2,352 individuals), using 15 microsatellite loci. F-statistics revealed significant differences between the majority of the populations that were sampled. Bayesian cluster analyses using both prior information and no prior information on sampling location revealed the presence of two distinguishable genetic pools - namely, the Northern (Group 1) and Southern (Group 2) regions of Iceland. Furthermore, the random permutation of different allele sizes among allelic states revealed a significant mutational component to the genetic differentiation at four microsatellite loci (SsaD144, Ssa171, SSsp2201 and SsaF3), and supported the proposition of a historical origin behind the observed variation. The estimated time of divergence, using two different ABC methods, suggested that the observed genetic pattern originated from between the Last Glacial Maximum to the Younger Dryas, which serves as additional evidence of the relative immaturity of Icelandic fish populations, on account of the re-colonisation of this young environment following the Last Glacial Maximum. Additional analyses suggested the presence of several genetic entities which were likely to originate from the original groups detected.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24498283 View in PubMed
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Future climate scenarios for a coastal productive planktonic food web resulting in microplankton phenology changes and decreased trophic transfer efficiency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259367
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94388
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Albert Calbet
Andrey F Sazhin
Jens C Nejstgaard
Stella A Berger
Zachary S Tait
Lorena Olmos
Despoina Sousoni
Stamatina Isari
Rodrigo A Martínez
Jean-Marie Bouquet
Eric M Thompson
Ulf Båmstedt
Hans H Jakobsen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94388
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomass
Chlorophyll - biosynthesis
Ciliophora - physiology
Climate
Climate change
Diatoms - physiology
Dinoflagellida - physiology
Eutrophication
Food chain
Forecasting
Heterotrophic Processes
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Models, Statistical
Norway
Phytoplankton - physiology
Temperature
Abstract
We studied the effects of future climate change scenarios on plankton communities of a Norwegian fjord using a mesocosm approach. After the spring bloom, natural plankton were enclosed and treated in duplicates with inorganic nutrients elevated to pre-bloom conditions (N, P, Si; eutrophication), lowering of 0.4 pH units (acidification), and rising 3°C temperature (warming). All nutrient-amended treatments resulted in phytoplankton blooms dominated by chain-forming diatoms, and reached 13-16 µg chlorophyll (chl) a l-1. In the control mesocosms, chl a remained below 1 µg l-1. Acidification and warming had contrasting effects on the phenology and bloom-dynamics of autotrophic and heterotrophic microplankton. Bacillariophyceae, prymnesiophyceae, cryptophyta, and Protoperidinium spp. peaked earlier at higher temperature and lower pH. Chlorophyta showed lower peak abundances with acidification, but higher peak abundances with increased temperature. The peak magnitude of autotrophic dinophyceae and ciliates was, on the other hand, lowered with combined warming and acidification. Over time, the plankton communities shifted from autotrophic phytoplankton blooms to a more heterotrophic system in all mesocosms, especially in the control unaltered mesocosms. The development of mass balance and proportion of heterotrophic/autotrophic biomass predict a shift towards a more autotrophic community and less-efficient food web transfer when temperature, nutrients and acidification are combined in a future climate-change scenario. We suggest that this result may be related to a lower food quality for microzooplankton under acidification and warming scenarios and to an increase of catabolic processes compared to anabolic ones at higher temperatures.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24721992 View in PubMed
Less detail

Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259387
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1723-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Mark D Hunter
Mikhail V Kozlov
Juhani Itämies
Erkki Pulliainen
Jaana Bäck
Ella-Maria Kyrö
Pekka Niemelä
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1723-37
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Climate change
Finland
Moths - physiology
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Species Specificity
Taiga
Abstract
Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32?years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations appear buffered at present from potential deleterious effects of climate change by other ecological forces.
PubMed ID
24421221 View in PubMed
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Linking climate change projections for an Alaskan watershed to future coho salmon production.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259390
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1808-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Jason C Leppi
Daniel J Rinella
Ryan R Wilson
Wendy M Loya
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1808-20
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Climate change
Female
Fisheries - statistics & numerical data
Male
Models, Biological
Oncorhynchus kisutch - growth & development - physiology
Reproduction
Rivers
Seasons
Temperature
Water Movements
Abstract
Climate change is predicted to dramatically change hydrologic processes across Alaska, but estimates of how these impacts will influence specific watersheds and aquatic species are lacking. Here, we linked climate, hydrology, and habitat models within a coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) population model to assess how projected climate change could affect survival at each freshwater life stage and, in turn, production of coho salmon smolts in three subwatersheds of the Chuitna (Chuit) River watershed, Alaska. Based on future climate scenarios and projections from a three-dimensional hydrology model, we simulated coho smolt production over a 20-year span at the end of the century (2080-2100). The direction (i.e., positive vs. negative) and magnitude of changes in smolt production varied substantially by climate scenario and subwatershed. Projected smolt production decreased in all three subwatersheds under the minimum air temperature and maximum precipitation scenario due to elevated peak flows and a resulting 98% reduction in egg-to-fry survival. In contrast, the maximum air temperature and minimum precipitation scenario led to an increase in smolt production in all three subwatersheds through an increase in fry survival. Other climate change scenarios led to mixed responses, with projected smolt production increasing and decreasing in different subwatersheds. Our analysis highlights the complexity inherent in predicting climate-change-related impacts to salmon populations and demonstrates that population effects may depend on interactions between the relative magnitude of hydrologic and thermal changes and their interactions with features of the local habitat.
PubMed ID
24323577 View in PubMed
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An analysis of specialist and non-specialist user requirements for geographic climate change information.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114159
Source
Appl Ergon. 2013 Nov;44(6):874-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Martin C Maguire
Author Affiliation
Loughborough Design School, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK. m.c.maguire@lboro.ac.uk
Source
Appl Ergon. 2013 Nov;44(6):874-85
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administrative Personnel
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Congresses as topic
Data Collection
Environmental monitoring
Europe
Faculty
Geographic Information Systems
Government Agencies
Humans
Needs Assessment
Research Personnel
Weather
Abstract
The EU EuroClim project developed a system to monitor and record climate change indicator data based on satellite observations of snow cover, sea ice and glaciers in Northern Europe and the Arctic. It also contained projection data for temperature, rainfall and average wind speed for Europe. These were all stored as data sets in a GIS database for users to download. The process of gathering requirements for a user population including scientists, researchers, policy makers, educationalists and the general public is described. Using an iterative design methodology, a user survey was administered to obtain initial feedback on the system concept followed by panel sessions where users were presented with the system concept and a demonstrator to interact with it. The requirements of both specialist and non-specialist users is summarised together with strategies for the effective communication of geographic climate change information.
PubMed ID
23642475 View in PubMed
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Cold summer weather, constrained restoration, and very low birth weight in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114576
Source
Health Place. 2013 Jul;22:68-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Terry Hartig
Ralph Catalano
Author Affiliation
Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Box 514, SE-75330 Uppsala, Sweden. terry.hartig@ibf.uu.se
Source
Health Place. 2013 Jul;22:68-74
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Climate change
Cold Temperature
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
Male
Models, Statistical
Motor Activity
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Seasons
Stress, Psychological - complications
Sweden
Abstract
In higher latitudes, relatively cold summer weather may constrain outdoor activities that provide relief from chronic stress. Chronic stress can affect human birth outcomes, including the length of gestation and so the birth weight of the infant. We tested the hypothesis that, in Sweden, the odds of very low birth weight (VLBW;
PubMed ID
23603428 View in PubMed
Less detail

Direct and indirect effects of climate change on herbicide leaching--a regional scale assessment in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264576
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 May 1;514:239-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2015
Author
Karin Steffens
Nicholas Jarvis
Elisabet Lewan
Bodil Lindström
Jenny Kreuger
Erik Kjellström
Julien Moeys
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 May 1;514:239-49
Date
May-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Groundwater - chemistry
Herbicides - analysis
Models, Chemical
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Climate change is not only likely to improve conditions for crop production in Sweden, but also to increase weed pressure and the need for herbicides. This study aimed at assessing and contrasting the direct and indirect effects of climate change on herbicide leaching to groundwater in a major crop production region in south-west Sweden with the help of the regional pesticide fate and transport model MACRO-SE. We simulated 37 out of the 41 herbicides that are currently approved for use in Sweden on eight major crop types for the 24 most common soil types in the region. The results were aggregated accounting for the fractional coverage of the crop and the area sprayed with a particular herbicide. For simulations of the future, we used projections of five different climate models as model driving data and assessed three different future scenarios: (A) only changes in climate, (B) changes in climate and land-use (altered crop distribution), and (C) changes in climate, land-use, and an increase in herbicide use. The model successfully distinguished between leachable and non-leachable compounds (88% correctly classified) in a qualitative comparison against regional-scale monitoring data. Leaching was dominated by only a few herbicides and crops under current climate and agronomic conditions. The model simulations suggest that the direct effects of an increase in temperature, which enhances degradation, and precipitation which promotes leaching, cancel each other at a regional scale, resulting in a slight decrease in leachate concentrations in a future climate. However, the area at risk of groundwater contamination doubled when indirect effects of changes in land-use and herbicide use, were considered. We therefore concluded that it is important to consider the indirect effects of climate change alongside the direct effects and that effective mitigation strategies and strict regulation are required to secure future (drinking) water resources.
PubMed ID
25666284 View in PubMed
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587 records – page 1 of 59.