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Accident prediction models for urban roads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187221
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2003 Mar;35(2):273-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Poul Greibe
Author Affiliation
Danish Transport Research Institute, Knuth Winterfeldts Allé, DK-2800 Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark. Poul@greibe.dk
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2003 Mar;35(2):273-85
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
City Planning - statistics & numerical data
Denmark
Environment Design - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Models, Statistical
Abstract
This paper describes some of the main findings from two separate studies on accident prediction models for urban junctions and urban road links described in [Uheldsmodel for bygader-Del1: Modeller for 3-og 4-benede kryds. Notat 22, The Danish Road Directorate, 1995; Uheldsmodel for bygader- Del2: Modeller for straekninger. Notat 59, The Danish Road Directorate, 1998] (Greibe and Hemdorff, 1995, 1988). The main objective for the studies was to establish simple, practicable accident models that can predict the expected number of accidents at urban junctions and road links as accurately as possible. The models can be used to identify factors affecting road safety and in relation to 'black spot' identification and network safety analysis undertaken by local road authorities. The accident prediction models are based on data from 1036 junctions and 142 km road links in urban areas. Generalised linear modelling techniques were used to relate accident frequencies to explanatory variables. The estimated accident prediction models for road links were capable of describing more than 60% of the systematic variation ('percentage-explained' value) while the models for junctions had lower values. This indicates that modelling accidents for road links is less complicated than for junctions, probably due to a more uniform accident pattern and a simpler traffic flow exposure or due to lack of adequate explanatory variables for junctions. Explanatory variables describing road design and road geometry proved to be significant for road link models but less important in junction models. The most powerful variable for all models was motor vehicle traffic flow.
PubMed ID
12504148 View in PubMed
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Active school transportation in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada: an exploration of trends in space and time (1986-2006).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152165
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):507-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Ron N Buliung
Raktim Mitra
Guy Faulkner
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road N, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. ron.buliung@utoronto.ca
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):507-12
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - physiology
Child
City Planning
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Motor Activity
Motor Vehicles
Ontario
Retrospective Studies
Schools
Students
Time Factors
Transportation - methods
Urban Population
Walking - physiology
Abstract
This study describes temporal and spatial trends in active transportation for school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada's largest city-region.
Proportions of trips by travel mode to and from school were estimated and compared for children (11-13 years) and youth (14-15 years). Data were drawn from the 1986, 1996, 2001, and 2006 versions of the Transportation Tomorrow Survey (TTS).
Between 1986 and 2006, walking mode share for trips to school declined (53.0%-42.5% for 11-13 year olds, 38.6%-30.7% for 14-15 year olds). Although there has also been a decline in walking home from school, walking rates were higher in the afternoon. In 2006, younger children in the suburbs walked less to school (36.1%-42.3% of trips) than 11-13 year olds in Toronto (48.1%) and Toronto's 14-15 year olds walked less (38.3% of trips) but used transit more (44.8% of trips) than students in the suburbs.
The findings indicate a period of decline (1986-2006) in the use of active modes for journeys to and from school for both age groups. Policies and programs to increase active transportation should acknowledge the spatial, temporal, and demographic heterogeneity of school travel decisions and outcomes.
Notes
Comment In: Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):513-519500552
PubMed ID
19272403 View in PubMed
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Analytic choices in road safety evaluation: exploring second-best approaches.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127710
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Mar;45:173-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Rune Elvik
Author Affiliation
Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway. re@toi.no
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Mar;45:173-9
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Bayes Theorem
Bias (epidemiology)
Choice Behavior
City Planning
Environment Design
Humans
Norway
Safety - standards
Safety Management
Abstract
Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may be missing or unreliable. The choice facing researchers in such a situation is to either apply "second-best" approaches or abstain from doing an evaluation study. An objection to applying second-best approaches is that these approaches do not control as well for confounding factors as state-of-the-art approaches. This paper explores the implications of choice of study design by examining how the findings of several evaluation studies made in Norway depend on choices made with respect to: 1. Using the empirical Bayes approach versus using simpler approaches; 2. Use or non-use of a comparison group; 3. The choice of comparison group when there is more than one candidate. It is found that the choices made with respect to these points can greatly influence the estimates of safety effects in before-and-after studies. Two second-best techniques (i.e. techniques other than the empirical Bayes approach) for controlling for confounding factors were tested. The techniques were found not to produce unbiased estimates of effect and their use is therefore discouraged.
PubMed ID
22269498 View in PubMed
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An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171814
Source
BMC Public Health. 2005;5:123
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Jouni T Tuomisto
Marko Tainio
Author Affiliation
Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis, National Public Health Institute (KTL), PO Box 95, FI-70701, Finland. jouni.tuomisto@ktl.fi
Source
BMC Public Health. 2005;5:123
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Automobiles - statistics & numerical data
City Planning - economics
Decision Support Techniques
Environment Design - economics
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Humans
Transportation - economics - methods - statistics & numerical data
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems.
We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones.
We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 50-70%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies.
Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic.
Notes
Cites: Risk Anal. 2005 Feb;25(1):151-6015787764
Cites: Science. 2004 Jul 23;305(5683):476-7; author reply 476-715273377
PubMed ID
16309549 View in PubMed
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Are child pedestrians at increased risk of injury on one-way compared to two-way streets?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197654
Source
Can J Public Health. 2000 May-Jun;91(3):201-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Wazana
V L Rynard
P. Raina
P. Krueger
L W Chambers
Author Affiliation
Postgraduate Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC. cxwz@musica.mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2000 May-Jun;91(3):201-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child, Preschool
City Planning
Data Collection
Environment Design
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Public Policy
Risk factors
Walking
Wounds and injuries - classification - epidemiology
Abstract
To compare child pedestrian injury rates on one-way versus two-way streets in Hamilton, and examine whether the characteristics of child pedestrian injuries differ across street types.
The rates of injury per child population, per kilometre, per year were calculated by age, sex and socio-economic status (SES). Child, environment and driver characteristics were investigated by street type.
The injury rate was 2.5 times higher on one-way streets than on two-way streets and 3 times higher for children from the poorest neighbourhoods than for those from wealthier neighbourhoods. SES, injury severity, number of lanes, collision location and type of traffic control were also found to be significantly different across street types.
One-way streets have higher rates of child pedestrian injuries than two-way streets in this community. Future risk factor and intervention studies should include the directionality of streets to further investigate its contribution to child pedestrian injuries.
PubMed ID
10927849 View in PubMed
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Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285719
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Jan;59(1):10-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Auri Sarvilinna
Virpi Lehtoranta
Turo Hjerppe
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Jan;59(1):10-20
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
City Planning - economics
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - methods
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem
Environmental Policy - economics
Finland
Humans
Rivers
Uncertainty
Urbanization - trends
Abstract
To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27812794 View in PubMed
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A better urban environment for people with visual impairment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51555
Source
Rehabil Lit. 1969 Jan;30(1):14-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1969
Author
K. Montan
Source
Rehabil Lit. 1969 Jan;30(1):14-5
Date
Jan-1969
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
City Planning
Humans
Sweden
Vision Disorders
PubMed ID
5784813 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101718
Source
Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):212-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Gösta Bluhm
Charlotta Eriksson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Nobels väg 13, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. gosta.bluhm@ki.se
Source
Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):212-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aircraft
Automobiles
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
City Planning
Humans
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Public Policy
Railroads
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A) noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19) per 5 dB(A) noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.
PubMed ID
21537104 View in PubMed
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Comparing circular and network buffers to examine the influence of land use on walking for leisure and errands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161187
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:41
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Lisa N Oliver
Nadine Schuurman
Alexander W Hall
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. loliver@sfu.ca
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:41
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia
City Planning
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Leisure Activities
Male
Middle Aged
Residence Characteristics
Transportation
Urban Population
Walking
Abstract
There is increasing interest in examining the influence of the built environment on physical activity. High-resolution data in a geographic information system is increasingly being used to measure salient aspects of the built environment and studies often use circular or road network buffers to measure land use around an individual's home address. However, little research has examined the extent to which the selection of circular or road network buffers influences the results of analysis. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of land use type (residential, commercial, recreational and park land and institutional land) on 'walking for leisure' and 'walking for errands' using 1 km circular and line-based road network buffers. Data on individual walking patterns is obtained from a survey of 1311 respondents in greater Vancouver and respondent's postal code centroids were used to construct the individual buffers. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.
Using line-based road network buffers, increasing proportion of institutional land significantly reduced the odds of 'walking for leisure 15 minutes or less per day' no significant results were found for circular buffers. A greater proportion of residential land significantly increased the odds of 'walking for errands less than 1 hour per week' for line-based road network buffer while no significant results for circular buffers. An increased proportion of commercial land significantly decreased the odds of 'walking for errands less than 1 hour per week' for both circular and line-based road network buffers.
The selection of network or circular buffers has a considerable influence on the results of analysis. Land use characteristics generally show greater associations with walking using line-based road network buffers than circular buffers. These results show that researchers need to carefully consider the most appropriate buffer with which to calculate land use characteristics.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17883870 View in PubMed
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Comparison of environmental effects and resource consumption for different wastewater and organic waste management systems in a new city area in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95502
Source
Water Environ Res. 2008 Aug;80(8):708-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Hellström Daniel
Baky Andras
Jeppsson Ulf
Jönsson Håkan
Kärrman Erik
Author Affiliation
Stockholm Water Company, Stockholm, Sweden. daniel.hellstrom@stockholmvatten.se
Source
Water Environ Res. 2008 Aug;80(8):708-18
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodegradation, Environmental
Cities
City Planning
Conservation of Energy Resources
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Water Purification
Abstract
An analysis of the environmental effects and resource consumption by four systems for management of wastewater and organic household waste in a new city area have been performed, as follows: (1) conventional system complemented with advanced sludge treatment for phosphorus recovery, (2) blackwater system with urine diversion and food waste disposers, (3) blackwater system with food waste disposers and reverse osmosis, and (4) local wastewater treatment plant with nutrient recovery by using reverse osmosis. Substance-flow analysis and energy/exergy calculations were performed by using the software tool URWARE/ORWARE. Emissions were calculated and classified based on the impact categories global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication, according to ISO 14042 (2000). The analysis also included nutrient recovery (i.e., the potential to use nutrients as a fertilizer). Depending on which aspects are prioritized, different systems can be considered to be the most advantageous.
PubMed ID
18751535 View in PubMed
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63 records – page 1 of 7.