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Implementation of Quiet Areas in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300297
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 01 07; 16(1):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-07-2019
Author
Gunnar Cerwén
Frans Mossberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden. gunnar.cerwen@slu.se.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 01 07; 16(1):
Date
01-07-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Cities
City Planning - methods
Humans
Noise - prevention & control
Sound
Sweden
Abstract
The notion of quiet areas has received increasing attention within the EU in recent years. The EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) of 2002 stipulates that member states should map existing quiet areas and formulate strategies to keep these quiet. Quiet areas could play an important role in balancing densified urban development by ensuring access to relative quietness and associated health benefits. This paper reports on a recent study investigating how the notion of quiet areas has been implemented in Sweden. The study, initiated by the Sound Environment Center in 2017, was carried out in two phases. In phase one, an overview of the current situation was obtained by scrutinizing regional and municipal mapping initiatives, aided by a short digital questionnaire sent out to all 290 municipalities in Sweden. This provided a general understanding and highlighted initiatives for further study in phase two. The results revealed that 41% (n = 118) of Sweden's municipalities include quiet areas in their general plans, but that significantly fewer of these have sophisticated strategies for implementation (n = 16; 6%). Moreover, the interest in quiet areas in municipalities does not seem to be directly related to the END, but is instead inspired by previous regional initiatives in Sweden. The study highlights a number of considerations and examples of how quiet areas are approached in Sweden today. In general, Sweden has come a long way in terms of identifying and mapping quiet areas, but more progress is needed in developing strategies to protect, maintain, and publicize quiet areas.
PubMed ID
30621011 View in PubMed
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Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
Jun-1983
Author
Scott, ER
Date
Jun-1983
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska statehood
Alcoholism
Bureau of Education
Circle City
Dawson City
Eagle City
Eagle Village
Episcopal Church
Fort Yukon
Han Indians
Health Personnel
Mental health
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present a broad health history of a small, isolated area in Alaska, of the residents receiving care, the individual providers at work, and the health situations they faced. The Upper Yukon Valley was the site chosen for this study because of the available recorded history and its geographic features.
Notes
Available at UAA/APU Consortium Library, Alaskana Collection: R160.Y9 S34 1983
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Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294842
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Sep; 61(9):1531-1543
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Sofia Thorsson
David Rayner
Fredrik Lindberg
Ana Monteiro
Lutz Katzschner
Kevin Ka-Lun Lau
Sabrina Campe
Antje Katzschner
Janina Konarska
Shiho Onomura
Sara Velho
Björn Holmer
Author Affiliation
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden. sofia.thorsson@gvc.gu.se.
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Sep; 61(9):1531-1543
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Cities
City Planning
Climate change
Forecasting
Germany
Models, Theoretical
Portugal
Sunlight
Sweden
Temperature
Trees
Abstract
Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28447175 View in PubMed
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Comparison of environmental effects and resource consumption for different wastewater and organic waste management systems in a new city area in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95502
Source
Water Environ Res. 2008 Aug;80(8):708-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Hellström Daniel
Baky Andras
Jeppsson Ulf
Jönsson Håkan
Kärrman Erik
Author Affiliation
Stockholm Water Company, Stockholm, Sweden. daniel.hellstrom@stockholmvatten.se
Source
Water Environ Res. 2008 Aug;80(8):708-18
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodegradation, Environmental
Cities
City Planning
Conservation of Energy Resources
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Water Purification
Abstract
An analysis of the environmental effects and resource consumption by four systems for management of wastewater and organic household waste in a new city area have been performed, as follows: (1) conventional system complemented with advanced sludge treatment for phosphorus recovery, (2) blackwater system with urine diversion and food waste disposers, (3) blackwater system with food waste disposers and reverse osmosis, and (4) local wastewater treatment plant with nutrient recovery by using reverse osmosis. Substance-flow analysis and energy/exergy calculations were performed by using the software tool URWARE/ORWARE. Emissions were calculated and classified based on the impact categories global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication, according to ISO 14042 (2000). The analysis also included nutrient recovery (i.e., the potential to use nutrients as a fertilizer). Depending on which aspects are prioritized, different systems can be considered to be the most advantageous.
PubMed ID
18751535 View in PubMed
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Principles of compiling the ecological maps of the cities

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85485
Source
Pages 194-195 in Scientific and Technical Progress and Circumpolar Health. The Abstracts Accepted for the IV International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Volume II.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1978
of the city reai•ienti: de:iend 011 many factors, on unfluence of anttropogen climato-~eographi­ cal changes of euvironment 1·or exa.uple. Jn establishing the interdependence between conditions of city ~nv~ronaent and the health of population special ecoJ.ogical ma:i:s can be o;f certain
  1 document  
Author
N.A. Tolokontsev
N.V. Bazanov
Author Affiliation
Leningrad, USSR
Source
Pages 194-195 in Scientific and Technical Progress and Circumpolar Health. The Abstracts Accepted for the IV International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Volume II.
Date
1978
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cities
Ecological
Maps
Documents
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Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83654
Source
Ecol Appl. 2007 Jul;17(5):1267-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Andersson E.
Barthel S.
Ahrné K.
Author Affiliation
Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 21 A, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. erik.andersson@ecology.su.se
Source
Ecol Appl. 2007 Jul;17(5):1267-78
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities
City Planning - methods
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Ecology
Ecosystem
Humans
Social Environment
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.
PubMed ID
17708207 View in PubMed
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Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80568
Source
Ambio. 2006 Aug;35(5):237-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Colding Johan
Lundberg Jakob
Folke Carl
Author Affiliation
Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. Johanc@beijer.kva.se
Source
Ambio. 2006 Aug;35(5):237-44
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Cities
City Planning - methods
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Ecosystem
Geographic Information Systems
Plants - growth & development
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.
PubMed ID
16989508 View in PubMed
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A better urban environment for people with visual impairment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51555
Source
Rehabil Lit. 1969 Jan;30(1):14-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1969
Author
K. Montan
Source
Rehabil Lit. 1969 Jan;30(1):14-5
Date
Jan-1969
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
City Planning
Humans
Sweden
Vision Disorders
PubMed ID
5784813 View in PubMed
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Principles of correction of microelement deficiency in water supply of an industrial city in the Extreme North

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85508
Source
Pages 220 in Scientific and Technical Progress and Circumpolar Health. The Abstracts Accepted for the IV International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Volume II.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1978
THE PRiliCIPLES OF CORRECTIOI OF 11.ICROELalENT D.BJ'ICIBBCY IN WATER SUPPLY 01 il INDUSTRIAL CITY IN THE EITREKE NORTH P.P.K h r- i s t e n lt o (Notllsk, USSR) The evaluative study of the 111acro- and microel-ent com- posi t1on of the water sources showed that one of the specific
  1 document  
Author
P.P. Khristenko
Author Affiliation
Norilsk, USSR
Source
Pages 220 in Scientific and Technical Progress and Circumpolar Health. The Abstracts Accepted for the IV International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Volume II.
Date
1978
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
City
Extreme North
Microelement deficiency
Water supply
Documents
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The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278208
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2015 Jul;59(7):799-814
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Kevin Ka-Lun Lau
Fredrik Lindberg
David Rayner
Sofia Thorsson
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2015 Jul;59(7):799-814
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities - epidemiology
City Planning
Climate change
Environment Design
Germany - epidemiology
Heat Stress Disorders - epidemiology
Humans
Humidity
Models, Theoretical
Portugal - epidemiology
Sunlight
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Abstract
Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban structure can reduce daytime heat stress since it reduces the number of hours of high T(mrt) in the summer and does not cause substantial changes in average and minimum T(mrt) in the winter. In dense urban settings, a more diverse urban thermal environment is also preferred to compensate for reduced solar access in the winter. The extent to which the urban geometry can be optimized for the future climate is also influenced by local urban characteristics.
PubMed ID
25218492 View in PubMed
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631 records – page 1 of 64.