To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
Access to health care services in Canada has been identified as an urgent priority, and chronic disease has been suggested as the most pressing health concern facing Canadians. Access to services for Canadians living with chronic disease, however, has received little emphasis in the research literature or in health policy reform documents. A systematic review of research into factors impeding or facilitating access to formal health services for people in Canada living with chronic illness is presented. The review includes 31 studies of Canadian populations published between 1990 and 2002; main results were analyzed for facilitators and barriers to access for people experiencing chronic disease. An underlying organizing construct of symmetry between consumers, providers, and the larger Canadian system is suggested as a relevant lens from which to view the findings. Finally, a discussion of the relationship between identified factors and the principles of primary health care is offered.
Physical illness and depression are associated. However, it remains unclear whether this association is sufficiently strong to merit systematic screening for depression among primary care patients suffering from physical illness. In the present study, we investigated the strength of the association between physical illness and depression among patients in general practice.
Four thousand two hundred and seventy-one consecutive primary care patients completed a diagnostic depression questionnaire. The general practitioner evaluated the patients' physical health, which was then compared to their diagnostic status of depression.
Physical illness was associated with the presence of depression. Two hundred and thirty-six patients (5.5%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for depression. Fourteen of these suffered from extreme physical illness, 27 from at least severe physical illness and 96 from at least moderate physical illness. The number needed to screen decreased with increasing severity and chronicity of the physical illness.
Depression is relatively common in primary care patients suffering from physical illness, particularly if the illness is severe and chronic. However, relatively few depressed patients suffer from a comorbid physical illness. Screening for depression among patients with physical illness may therefore only have a modest impact on the under-recognition of depression in general practice.
Mood disorders are more prevalent in individuals with chronic physical illness compared to individuals with no such illness. These disorders amplify the disability associated with the physical condition and adversely affect its course, thus contributing to occupational impairment, disruption in interpersonal and family relationships, poor health and suicide. This study used data collected in the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 3.1 (2005) to examine factors associated with comorbid mood disorders and to assess their association with the quality of life of individuals living in Ontario. Results indicate that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, bowel disorder or stomach or intestinal ulcers had the highest rates of mood disorders. The odds of having a comorbid mood disorder were higher among women, the single, those living in poverty, the Canadian born and those between 30 and 69 years of age. The presence of comorbid mood disorders was significantly associated with short-term disability, requiring help with instrumental daily activities and suicidal ideation. Health care providers are urged to proactively screen chronically ill patients for mood disorders, particularly among the subgroups found to have elevated risk for these disorders.
Medical comorbidity in patients with mood disorders has become an increasingly important clinical and global public health issue. Several specific medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of mood disorders, and conversely, mood disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with specific medical disorders.
To help understand the bidirectional relationship and to provide an evidence-based framework to guide the treatment of mood disorders that are comorbid with medical illness, we have reviewed relevant articles and reviews published in English-language databases (to April 2011) on the links between mood disorders and several common medical conditions, evaluating the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic and psychosocial treatments. The medical disorders most commonly encountered in adult populations (ie, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, migraine, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and osteoporosis) were chosen as the focus of this review.
Emerging evidence suggests that depression comorbid with several medical disorders is treatable and failure to treat depression in medically ill patients may have a negative effect on medical outcomes.
This review summarizes the available evidence and provides treatment recommendations for the management of comorbid depression in medically ill patients.
Comment In: Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;24(4):319-20; author reply 320-223145390
A socio-pediatric study of children's health and well-being has been carried out, based on questionnaires from 2000 children with long-term illnesses and disabilities and from a representative sample of 10,000 children from the five Nordic countries. The overall results confirm that Nordic children enjoy a high standard of living, and that they are healthy, both physically, mentally and socially. They frequently use the health services but mainly for minor complaints and their hospital stays are short. Disabled children and their families have the same material standard of living and a similar social network as the others. Their leisure time activities, however, are reduced and the children's peer acceptance and self-esteem are lower and they have more psychosomatic symptoms. It is mainly the mothers who have to interrupt their career to take care of the disabled children. Most families, both disabled and others, are quite satisfied with the children's medical care, especially where continuity and specialist services are provided.
To estimate (1) the prevalence of long-term medical conditions and of comorbid major depression, and (2) the associations between major depression and various chronic medical conditions in a general population of older adults (over 50 years of age) and in persons who are traditionally classified as seniors (65 years and older).
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey- Mental Health and Wellbeing (CCHS-1.2) were analyzed. Non-institutionalized individuals over 15 years of age in the 10 Canadian provinces were sampled in the CCHS-1.2. The entire sample of the CCHS-1.2 consisted of 36,894 individuals, for the main analyses in this study the dataset was restricted to those aged 50 and over (n=15,591). Chronic health conditions were assessed using a self-report method of doctor diagnosis. The World Mental Health-Composite Diagnostic Interview was used to asses major depressive episodes based on DSM-IV criteria.
The overall prevalence of having at least one chronic condition in those over 50 years of age was 82.4%, compared to 62.0% in those under 50. The prevalence of a major depressive episode in those over 50 with one chronic condition was 3.7%, compared with 1.0% in those without a long-term medical condition. The top 3 chronic health conditions in seniors aged 65 or older were arthritis/rheumatism, high blood pressure and back problems. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, fibromyalgia and migraine headache had the highest comorbidity with major depression in the senior population.
The use of self-report data on chronic health conditions, potential diagnostic overlap between conditions, and the inability to make causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are all limitations of the current study.
Differences were found between rates of chronic conditions and major depression between the general population, older adults and seniors in this study. Further research is needed to delineate the direction of these relationships in seniors. Primary and secondary prevention efforts should target seniors who exhibit symptoms of depression or highly prevalent chronic health conditions.
Little is known about the work patterns of re-employed people. We investigated the labour market attachment trajectories of re-employed people and assessed the influence of chronic diseases on these trajectories.
The study was based on register data of 18?944 people (aged 18-60 years) who participated in a subsidised re-employment programme in Finland. Latent class growth analysis with zero-inflated Poisson was used to model the labour market attachment trajectories over a 6-year follow-up time. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between chronic diseases and labour market attachment trajectories, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, size of town and calendar year in subsidised re-employment programme.
We identified four distinct labour market attachment trajectories, namely: strengthening (a relatively stable attachment throughout the follow-up time; 77%), delayed (initial weak attachment increasing later; 6%), leavers (attachment declined with time; 10%) and none-attached (weak attachment throughout the study period; 7%). We found that severe mental problems strongly increased the likelihood of belonging in the leavers (OR 3.61; 95%?CI 2.23 to 5.37) and none-attached (OR 3.41; 95%?CI 1.91 to 6.10) trajectories, while chronic hypertension was associated with none-attached (OR 1.37; 95%?CI 1.06 to 1.77) trajectory. The associations between other chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, asthma and arthritics) and labour market attachment trajectories were less evident.
Re-employed people appear to follow distinct labour market attachment trajectories over time. Having chronic diseases, especially mental disorders appear to increase the risk for relatively poor labour market attachment.
Survival rates of children with a chronic illness is at an all-time high. Up to 98% of children suffering from a chronic illness, which may have been considered fatal in the past, now reach early adulthood. It is estimated that as many as 30% of school-aged children are affected by a chronic illness. For this population of children, the prevalence of educational and psychological problems is nearly double in comparison with the general population.
This study investigated the educational and psychological effects of childhood chronic illness among 1512 Canadian children (ages 10-15 years). This was a retrospective analysis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, taking a cross-sectional look at the relationships between childhood chronic illnesses, performance on a Mathematics Computation Exercise (MCE) and ratings on an Anxiety and Emotional Disorder (AED) scale.
When AED ratings and educational handicaps were controlled for, children identified with chronic illnesses still had weaker performance on the MCE. Chronic illness did not appear to have a relationship with children's AED ratings. The regression analysis indicated that community type and illness were the strongest predictors of MCE scores.
The core research implications of this study concern measurement issues that need to be addressed in future large-scale studies. Clinical implications of this research concern the need for co-ordinated services between the home, hospital and school settings so that services and programmes focus on the ecology of the child who is ill.
Chronic pain is common in Western societies. Self-rated health is an important indicator of morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the relation between chronic pain and self-rated health in the general population.
To analyze the association between chronic pain and self-rated health.
A questionnaire survey carried out during the spring of 2002 of an age- and sex-stratified population sample of 6500 individuals in Finland aged 15 to 74 years, with a response rate of 71% (N = 4542) after exclusion of those with unobtainable data (n = 38). Chronic pain was defined as pain with a duration of at least 3 months and was graded by frequency: (1) at most once a week; (2) several times a week; and (3) daily or continuously. On the basis of a 5-item questionnaire on self-rated health, individuals were classified as having good, moderate, or poor health. Multinominal logistic regression analysis was used to assess the determinants of health. Analysis included sex, age, education, working status, chronic diseases, and mood.
Perceived chronic pain graded by frequency and self-rated health status.
The prevalence of any chronic pain was 35.1%; that of daily chronic pain, 14.3%. The prevalence of moderate self-rated health was 26.6% and of poor health, 7.6%. For moderate self-rated health among individuals having chronic pain at most once a week compared with individuals having no chronic pain, the adjusted odds were 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.76); several times a week, 2.41 (95% CI, 1.94-3.00); and daily, 3.69 (95% CI, 2.97-4.59). Odds for poor self-rated health were as follows: having chronic pain at most once a week, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.65-2.07); several times a week, 2.62 (95% CI, 1.76-3.90); and daily, 11.82 (95% CI, 8.67-16.10).
Chronic pain is independently related to low self-rated health in the general population.