To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
To evaluate the costs, consequences, effectiveness, and safety of ciprofloxacin vs standard antibiotic care in patients with an initial acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) as well as recurrent AECBs over a 1-year period.
A total of 240 patients, 18 years or older with chronic bronchitis, with a history of frequent exacerbations (three or more in the past year) presenting with a type 1 or 2 AECB (two or more of increased dyspnea, increased sputum volume, or sputum purulence).
The assessment included AECB symptoms, antibiotics prescribed, concomitant medications, adverse events, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, outpatient resources such as diagnostic tests, procedures, and patient and caregiver out-of-pocket expenses. Patients completed the Nottingham Health Profile, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and the Health Utilities Index. The parameters were recorded with each AECB and at regular quarterly intervals for 1 year. These variables were compared between the ciprofloxacin-treated group and the usual-care-treated group.
Patients receiving ciprofloxacin experienced a median of two AECBs per patient compared to a median of three AECBs per patient receiving usual care. The mean annualized total number of AECB-symptom days was 42.9+/-2.8 in the ciprofloxacin arm compared to 45.6+/-3.0 days in the usual-care arm (p=0.50). The overall duration of the average AECB was 15.2+/-0.6 days for the ciprofloxacin arm compared to 16.3+/-0.6 days for the usual-care arm. Treatment with ciprofloxacin tended to accelerate the resolution of all AECBs compared to usual care (relative risk=1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.58; p=0.19). Treatment assignment did not affect the interexacerbation period but a history of severe bronchitis, prolonged chronic bronchitis, and an increased number of AECBs in the past year were associated with shorter exacerbations-free periods. There was a slight, but not statistically significant, improvement in all quality of life measures with ciprofloxacin over usual care. The only factors predictive of hospitalization were duration of chronic bronchitis (odds ratio=4.6; 95% CI, 1.6, 13.0) and severity of chronic bronchitis (odds ratio=4.3; 95% CI, 0.8, 24.6). The incremental cost difference of $578 Canadian in favor of usual care was not significant (95% CI, -$778, $1,932). The cost for the ciprofloxacin arm over the usual care arm was $18,588 Canadian per quality-adjusted life year gained. When the simple base case analysis was expanded to examine the effect of risk stratification, the presence of moderate or severe bronchitis and at least four AECBs in the previous year changed the economic and clinical analysis to one favorable to ciprofloxacin with the ciprofloxacin-treated group having a better clinical outcome at lower cost ("win-win" scenario).
Treatment with ciprofloxacin tended to accelerate the resolution of all AECBs compared to usual care; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Further, usual care was found to be more reflective of best available care rather than usual first-line agents such as amoxicillin, tetracycline, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as originally expected. Despite the similar antimicrobial activities and broad-spectrum coverage of both ciprofloxacin and usual care, the trends in clinical outcomes and all quality of life measurements favor ciprofloxacin. In patients suffering from an AECB with a history of moderate to severe chronic bronchitis and at least four AECBs in the previous year, ciprofloxacin treatment offered substantial clinical and economic benefits. In these patients, ciprofloxacin may be the preferred first antimicrobial choice.
Nedocromil sodium is a pyranoquinoline dicarboxylic acid derivative, formulated in a metered-dose inhaler. Because nedocromil sodium has in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, it was evaluated in a group of steroid-dependent patients with asthma to observe how well it might be tolerated and for evidence of any beneficial effects. In a double-blind, group-comparative study, 127 patients received nedocromil sodium and 61 received placebo, administered as two puffs of 2 mg, four times per day, for 12 weeks. Ten patients developed adverse reactions, seven receiving active drug and three patients receiving placebo. Two patients of each group withdrew because of worsening asthma. Despite selecting patients whose asthma was stable, when they were receiving established therapeutic regimens that included steroids and bronchodilators, it was found that diary-card symptom scores, morning and evening peak expiratory flow rate values, and inhaled beta-agonist usage all demonstrated slight but significant benefit with addition of nedocromil sodium. It is concluded that the inhaled, anti-inflammatory agent, nedocromil sodium, may be added to asthma-treatment regimens with the reasonable expectation of further modest symptomatic benefit.
The objective was to investigate the 3-year course of secondary chronic headaches (?15days per month for at least 3months) in the general population. An age and gender stratified random sample of 30,000 persons aged 30-44years from the general population received a mailed questionnaire. All with self-reported chronic headache, 517 in total, were interviewed by neurological residents. The questionnaire response rate was 71%. The rate of participation in the initial and follow-up interview was 74% (633/852) and 87% (83/95) respectively. The International Classification of Headache Disorders was used, and then in the next step the Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group and American Academy of Otolaryngology criteria were used in relation to cervicogenic headache (CEH) and headache attributed to chronic rhinosinusitis (HACRS). Of those followed-up, 40 had headache attributed to head and/or neck trauma (chronic posttraumatic headache), 0 had CEH and 0 had HACRS according to the ICHD-II criteria, while 18 had CEH according to the Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group's criteria, and 37 had HACRS according to the criteria of the American Academy of Otolaryngology. The headache index (frequency×intensity×duration) was significantly reduced from baseline to follow-up in chronic posttraumatic headache and HACRS, but not in CEH. We conclude that secondary chronic headaches seem to have various course dependent of subtype. Recognizing the different types of secondary chronic headaches is of importance because it might have management implications.
In order to investigate the significance and outcome of self-reported pain and fibromyalgia (FM) in a female population, 214 women with initially self-reported pain were interviewed and examined in 1990 and 1995. In 1990 the sample was categorised into four pain status groups: 46 individuals (21%) with nonchronic (recurrent) pain, 69 (32%) with chronic regional pain 42 (20%) with chronic multifocal pain and 57 with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The last group comprised 39 (18%) women with FM, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. The frequency of tender points, associated symptoms called historical variables and individuals with low education increased statistically significantly with increasing pain status. In 1995, 48 women had non-chronic pain (23%), 46 (21%) chronic regional pain, 39 (18%) chronic multifocal pain and 81 (38%) CWP; of these, 71 (33%) had FM. Eleven of the 39 women initially with FM no longer fulfilled the criteria. The risk of developing CWP among the 157 individuals with initially a lower pain status was statistically higher in women with chronic multifocal pain than in women with less pain extension. Self-reported pain constitutes a continuum of pain severity and thus of clinical and social significance. The overall outcome was poor with an increase of individuals with CWP and FM. The prognosis of chronic multifocal pain, CWP and FM was especially poor. About half of the women with non-chronic pain or chronic regional pain did not deteriorate. However, because the process of developing FM started with localised pain in most cases, self-reported pain of any severity confers a risk for developing FM. Identifying possible risk factors for FM are at present under study and will be presented separately in another report.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neck/shoulder and low back pain are common in the Western world and can cause great personal and economic consequences, but so far there are few long term follow-up studies of the consequences of back pain, especially studies that separate the location of back pain. More knowledge is needed about different patterns of risk factors and prognoses for neck/shoulder and low back pain, respectively, and they should not be treated as similar conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible long-term differences in neck/shoulder and low back symptoms, experienced over a 12-year period, with regard to work status, present health, discomfort and influence on daily activities. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study of individuals sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses 12 years ago was undertaken. Included were all 213 people who, in 1985, lived in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, were aged 25-34 years and who had taken at least one new period of sickleave lasting > 28 days with a neck/shoulder or low back diagnosis. In 1996, a questionnaire was mailed to the 204 people who were still resident in Sweden (response rate 73%). RESULTS: Those initially absent with neck/shoulder diagnoses rated their present state of discomfort as worse than those sicklisted with low back diagnoses. Only 4% of the neck/shoulder group reported no present discomfort compared with 25% of the low back group. Notably, both groups reported the same duration of low back discomfort during the last year, which may indicate a higher risk for symptoms in more than one location for subjects with neck/shoulder problems. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with sickness absence of more than 28 days with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses appear to be at high risk of developing long-standing symptoms significantly more so for those initially having neck/shoulder diagnoses.
A double-blind, randomized, parallel, comparative study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of subgingivally administered minocycline ointment versus a vehicle control.
One hundred four patients (104) with moderate to severe adult periodontitis (34 to 64 years of age; mean 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Following scaling and root planing, patients were randomized to receive either 2% minocycline ointment or a matched vehicle control. Study medication was administered directly into the periodontal pocket with a specially designed, graduated, disposable applicator at baseline; week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Scaling and root planing was repeated at months 6 and 12. Standard clinical variables (including probing depth and attachment level) were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Microbiological sampling using DNA probes was done at baseline; at week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15.
Both treatment groups showed significant and clinically relevant reductions in the numbers of each of the 7 microorganisms measured during the entire 15-month study period. When differences were detected, sites treated with minocycline ointment always produced statistically significantly greater reductions than sites which received the vehicle control. For initial pockets > or =5 mm, a mean reduction in probing depth of 1.9 mm was seen in the test sites, versus 1.2 mm in the control sites. Sites with a baseline probing depth > or =7 mm and bleeding index >2 showed an average of 2.5 mm reduction with minocycline versus 1.5 mm with the vehicle. Gains in attachment (0.9 mm and 1.1 mm) were observed in minocycline-treated sites, with baseline probing depth > or =5 mm and > or =7 mm, respectively, compared with 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm gain at control sites. Subgingival administration of minocycline ointment was well tolerated.
Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated subgingival administration of minocycline ointment in the treatment of adult periodontitis is safe and leads to significant adjunctive improvement after subgingival instrumentation in both clinical and microbiologic variables over a 15-month period.
Behavior and lifestyle play an important part in determining our
health status and lifespan. Every day Alaskans make lifestyle choices that profoundly affect their health. Although heredity and environment play a part, the leading causes of death in Alaska (heart disease, cancer and unintentional injuries) are closely related to lifestyle factors. Lifestyle and behavioral factors that affect health include such things as diet, exercise, use of alcohol and
tobacco, and preventive health practices. Many premature deaths
and disabilities could be prevented through better control of these
behavioral risk factors.