The objective of this study is to describe a urine drug-testing program implemented for parents with a history of substance abuse by family service agencies in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Nurse collectors went to the parents' home to obtain urine specimens under direct observation and then delivered the specimens to the toxicology laboratory or arranged shipment by courier under chain of custody. Each urine specimen was screened for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite, opiates, amphetamines and benzodiazepines, ethyl alcohol and creatinine. All positive screening tests were confirmed by another method such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In 15,979 urine specimens collected from 1994 to 1999, the percent positive rate for one (or more) drugs/metabolites ranged from 45.6% (1994-1996) to 30.0% (1998, 1999). A total of 575 specimens (3.7%) were dilute (urine creatinine
Center for Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institute, Novum, S-141 57 Huddinge and Department of Molecular Genome Research, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. kamila.plna2cnt.ki.se
Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a simple 3-carbon epoxide of industrial importance. It has been shown to be genotoxic in several systems and carcinogenic in experimental animals. The aim of the present investigation was to study DNA adducts of ECH as a biomarker of occupational exposure to this chemical. 7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-CHP-guanine) was analysed in DNA from white blood cells using an anion exchange-based adduct enrichment protocol of the (32)P-post-labelling/HPLC-based assay. Blood samples were collected from seven workers handling ECH (exposed), nine workers not handling ECH but normally present in the premises where this chemical is used (potentially exposed) and 13 office and factory workers from locations in the plant where ECH is not handled (controls). 7-CHP-guanine was detected in five of the seven workers exposed to ECH (1.6-7.1 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides) and in two of the nine workers potentially exposed to ECH (0.8-1.5 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides). This adduct was not detected in any of the 13 controls. The difference in adduct levels between exposed workers and controls was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P
We have evaluated a new immunoturbidimetric assay (DCA 2000 HbA1c system, Bayer, Denmark) for determination of HbA1c. The aim of the study was to evaluate accuracy, precision and feasibility for the DCA 2000 method when employed in a diabetes centre by a technical assistant and at a general practitioner's by non lab staff. The results were compared with a high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC, AUTO A1C, Kyoto Daiichi Kagaku Co., Kyoto, Japan) which is the current laboratory method, and therefore used as reference. Assay time for the DCA 2000 method was nine minutes, while the HbA1c result was displayed within four minutes by HPLC. Blood samples were drawn after informed consent from 118 patients during a period of two months at the out-patient clinic of the Dept. of Paediatrics, Glostrup Hospital (n = 67) and at a general practitioner's (n = 51). Each sample was analyzed twice by each method on two consecutive days. In the HbA1c range from four to 14% (n = 67) the average within-assay precision (SD) for the HPLC method was 0.13%, whilst it was 0.23% for the DCA 2000 method (p 0.07) when carried out by a technical assistant (SD: 0.20%) and by non lab staff (SD: 0.25%). Interbatch variations for HbA1c results investigated with two different batches of reagents within a month were SD 0.30% (HbA1c range: 4.9-5.9%, n = 30) and SD 0.44% (HbA1c range: 10.5-12.1%, n = 30) for these two preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 May 23;156(21):31958066841
Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract.
We identified age-dependent post-translational modifications of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (Ph-b), isolated from F1 hybrids of Fisher 344 x Brown Norway rats. Ph-b isolated from 34 months old rats showed a statistically significant decrease in specific activity compared to 6 months old animals: 13.8+/-0.7 vs. 20.6+/-0.8 U mg(-1) protein, respectively. Western blot analysis of the purified Ph-b with anti-3-NT antibodies revealed an age-dependent accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), quantified by reverse-phase HPLC-UV analysis to increase from 0.05+/-0.03 to 0.34+/-0.11 (mol 3-NT/mol Ph-b) for 6 vs. 34 months old rats, respectively. HPLC-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry revealed the accumulation of 3-NT on Tyr113, Tyr161 and Tyr573. While nitration of Tyr113 was detected for both young and old rats, 3-NT at positions 161 and 573 was identified only for Ph-b isolated from 34 months old rats. The sequence of the rat muscle Ph-b was corrected based on our protein sequence mapping and a custom rat PHS2 sequence containing 17 differently located amino acid residues was used instead of the database sequence. The in vitro reaction of peroxynitrite with Ph-b resulted in the nitration of multiple Tyr residues at positions 51, 52, 113, 155, 185, 203, 262, 280, 404, 473, 731, and 732. Thus, the in vitro nitration conditions only mimic the nitration of a single Tyr residue observed in vivo suggesting alternative pathways controlling the accumulation of 3-NT in vivo. Our data show a correlation of age-dependent 3-NT accumulation with Ph-b inactivation.
The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p
One of the leading causes of blindness in the world is glaucoma. The most common form is primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The only gene identified so far as being associated with POAG is the MYOC gene; 2-4% of the patients have been reported to carry mutations in this gene. Exfoliative glaucoma is a secondary glaucoma, in which one of the symptoms is exfoliations on the lens capsule and anterior segment of the eye. No gene has been identified as being associated with this variant. The aim of the present study was to analyze Swedish patient material for allelic variants and mutations in the coding region of the MYOC gene. Two hundred patients with POAG and 200 with exfoliative glaucoma were analyzed using enzymatic cleavage assay and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). An age-matched control group (n = 200), in whom glaucoma had been excluded, was also analyzed using dHPLC. Eight allele variants were identified, two of which were determined to be disease-causing mutations. These two disease-causing mutations were only found in POAG patients, indicating a prevalence of 1% in this patient group. This frequency is lower than that reported in other studies of other populations. No disease-causing mutations were found in the exfoliative glaucoma patients, indicating a fundamentally different genetic basis for that glaucoma variant.
The present study is the first to examine the modulation of retinal kynurenic acid (KYNA) content in response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced cell death in adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Adult Brown Norway rats were intravitreally injected with NMDA or PBS. Surviving RGC were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold and counted in wholemounts of retinas 2, 7 and 14 days after injection. Retinal KYNA content was measured by HPLC at the same time points. RGC numbers decreased significantly 2, 7 and 14 days after NMDA injection if compared to control retinas. KYNA concentration increased significantly two days after NMDA-injection. However, 7 and 14 days after injection retinal KYNA content was found markedly decreased in NMDA-treated eyes as compared to controls. It is conceivable that KYNA deficiency is causally related to the pathology of excitotoxic retinal diseases.
The exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was measured in a Finnish coking plant over a 7-year period (1988-1994), since the beginning of production. Hygienic measurements including dust and vapour sampling were performed and the correlations between the concentrations of airborne pyrene with the levels of pyrene metabolite 1-pyrenol in urine were calculated. The profile of measured 12 or 15 PAHs was very similar between mean concentrations of personal samples, which suggests that it is possible to calculate the concentrations of total PAH by using e.g. pyrene as a marker compound. Measurements suggest that the progress of working conditions has been very favourable because the mean exposure level of shift workers to benzo[a]pyrene has decreased from 2.5 micrograms/m3 to 0.3 micrograms/m3. This points to successful measures of technical prevention. The mean concentration of 1-pyrenol in urine has been 0.2-0.6 mumol/mol creatinine. The concentration increases slightly towards the end of the working day, but the correlation urinary pyrenol and air pyrene was weak. Therefore the usefulness of pyrenol level for predicting the pyrene concentration at low exposure level in the ambient air is very limited.
The aminoterminal propeptide (hotPINP) of type I homotrimer, a putative malignancy-associated type I collagen variant, was purified for the first time and a method was established for its detection in pleural fluid. Samples of 58 patients, with malignant or benign disease, were studied with specific immunoassays for the two propeptides of type-I procollagen (PICP and PINP) and with HPLC-DEAE chromatography to separate the two PINP variants. HotPINP was present in 64% of both benign and malignant pleural effusion fluids, with the exception of malignant mesotheliomas, none of which showed the presence of hotPINP. Also the PICP to PINP ratios were lower than normal in both benign and malignant samples (altogether in 69% of samples), although this deviation was greater in malignancy. These two phenomena were independent of each other. As synthesis of the alpha1-homotrimer-variant of type-I collagen seems to be relatively common during the formation of pleural effusion, it may be generally related to a fibroproliferative reaction in the pleural wall.