Skip header and navigation

Refine By

342 records – page 1 of 35.

A 6-year experience with urine drug testing by family service agencies in Nova Scotia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193186
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Oct 1;121(3):151-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2001
Author
A D Fraser
Author Affiliation
Clinical & Forensic Toxicologist, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, 1278 Tower Road, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 2Y9. adfraser@is.dal.ca
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Oct 1;121(3):151-6
Date
Oct-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Custody
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Humans
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Social Work
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - urine
Abstract
The objective of this study is to describe a urine drug-testing program implemented for parents with a history of substance abuse by family service agencies in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Nurse collectors went to the parents' home to obtain urine specimens under direct observation and then delivered the specimens to the toxicology laboratory or arranged shipment by courier under chain of custody. Each urine specimen was screened for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite, opiates, amphetamines and benzodiazepines, ethyl alcohol and creatinine. All positive screening tests were confirmed by another method such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In 15,979 urine specimens collected from 1994 to 1999, the percent positive rate for one (or more) drugs/metabolites ranged from 45.6% (1994-1996) to 30.0% (1998, 1999). A total of 575 specimens (3.7%) were dilute (urine creatinine
PubMed ID
11566417 View in PubMed
Less detail

32P-post-labelling of 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine in white blood cells of workers occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67496
Source
Carcinogenesis. 2000 Feb;21(2):275-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
K. Plna
S. Osterman-Golkar
E. Nogradi
D. Segerbäck
Author Affiliation
Center for Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institute, Novum, S-141 57 Huddinge and Department of Molecular Genome Research, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. kamila.plna2cnt.ki.se
Source
Carcinogenesis. 2000 Feb;21(2):275-80
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkylating Agents - adverse effects - pharmacology
Biological Markers
Chemical Industry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Comparative Study
DNA Adducts - analysis
DNA Damage
Epichlorohydrin - adverse effects - pharmacology
Guanine - analogs & derivatives - blood
Humans
Isotope Labeling
Leukocytes - chemistry - drug effects
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Phosphorus Radioisotopes
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Smoking - epidemiology
Solvents - adverse effects - pharmacology
Sweden
Abstract
Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a simple 3-carbon epoxide of industrial importance. It has been shown to be genotoxic in several systems and carcinogenic in experimental animals. The aim of the present investigation was to study DNA adducts of ECH as a biomarker of occupational exposure to this chemical. 7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-CHP-guanine) was analysed in DNA from white blood cells using an anion exchange-based adduct enrichment protocol of the (32)P-post-labelling/HPLC-based assay. Blood samples were collected from seven workers handling ECH (exposed), nine workers not handling ECH but normally present in the premises where this chemical is used (potentially exposed) and 13 office and factory workers from locations in the plant where ECH is not handled (controls). 7-CHP-guanine was detected in five of the seven workers exposed to ECH (1.6-7.1 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides) and in two of the nine workers potentially exposed to ECH (0.8-1.5 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides). This adduct was not detected in any of the 13 controls. The difference in adduct levels between exposed workers and controls was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P
PubMed ID
10657968 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A comparison of 2 new rapid methods for determination of HbA1C concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48487
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 Jan 17;156(3):317-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-17-1994
Author
H B Mortensen
M R Nielsen
E. Christensen
K. Marinelli
B. Petersen
Author Affiliation
Børneafdelingen, Københavns Amts Sygehus i Glostrup.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 Jan 17;156(3):317-21
Date
Jan-17-1994
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods - standards
Comparative Study
Diabetes Mellitus - blood
English Abstract
Evaluation Studies
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Immunoassay - methods - standards
Nephelometry and Turbidimetry - methods - standards
Abstract
We have evaluated a new immunoturbidimetric assay (DCA 2000 HbA1c system, Bayer, Denmark) for determination of HbA1c. The aim of the study was to evaluate accuracy, precision and feasibility for the DCA 2000 method when employed in a diabetes centre by a technical assistant and at a general practitioner's by non lab staff. The results were compared with a high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC, AUTO A1C, Kyoto Daiichi Kagaku Co., Kyoto, Japan) which is the current laboratory method, and therefore used as reference. Assay time for the DCA 2000 method was nine minutes, while the HbA1c result was displayed within four minutes by HPLC. Blood samples were drawn after informed consent from 118 patients during a period of two months at the out-patient clinic of the Dept. of Paediatrics, Glostrup Hospital (n = 67) and at a general practitioner's (n = 51). Each sample was analyzed twice by each method on two consecutive days. In the HbA1c range from four to 14% (n = 67) the average within-assay precision (SD) for the HPLC method was 0.13%, whilst it was 0.23% for the DCA 2000 method (p 0.07) when carried out by a technical assistant (SD: 0.20%) and by non lab staff (SD: 0.25%). Interbatch variations for HbA1c results investigated with two different batches of reagents within a month were SD 0.30% (HbA1c range: 4.9-5.9%, n = 30) and SD 0.44% (HbA1c range: 10.5-12.1%, n = 30) for these two preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Notes
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 May 23;156(21):31958066841
PubMed ID
8296425 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259503
Source
Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15;21(6):912-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2014
Author
Hans Wohlmuth
Kate Savage
Ashley Dowell
Peter Mouatt
Source
Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15;21(6):912-8
Date
May-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Commerce
Denmark
Dietary Supplements
Drug Contamination
Flavonols - analysis
Genistein - analysis
Ginkgo biloba - chemistry
Glycosides - analysis
Pharmacopoeias as Topic
Plant Extracts - chemistry
Plant Leaves
Abstract
Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract.
PubMed ID
24566389 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age-associated tyrosine nitration of rat skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b: characterization by HPLC-nanoelectrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82459
Source
Exp Gerontol. 2006 Apr;41(4):407-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Sharov Victor S
Galeva Nadezhda A
Kanski Jaroslaw
Williams Todd D
Schöneich Christian
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.
Source
Exp Gerontol. 2006 Apr;41(4):407-16
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - metabolism
Animals
Base Sequence
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Glycogen Phosphorylase, Muscle Form - analysis - genetics - metabolism
Longevity
Molecular Sequence Data
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism
Peroxynitrous Acid
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Sequence Alignment
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Tyrosine - analogs & derivatives - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
We identified age-dependent post-translational modifications of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (Ph-b), isolated from F1 hybrids of Fisher 344 x Brown Norway rats. Ph-b isolated from 34 months old rats showed a statistically significant decrease in specific activity compared to 6 months old animals: 13.8+/-0.7 vs. 20.6+/-0.8 U mg(-1) protein, respectively. Western blot analysis of the purified Ph-b with anti-3-NT antibodies revealed an age-dependent accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), quantified by reverse-phase HPLC-UV analysis to increase from 0.05+/-0.03 to 0.34+/-0.11 (mol 3-NT/mol Ph-b) for 6 vs. 34 months old rats, respectively. HPLC-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry revealed the accumulation of 3-NT on Tyr113, Tyr161 and Tyr573. While nitration of Tyr113 was detected for both young and old rats, 3-NT at positions 161 and 573 was identified only for Ph-b isolated from 34 months old rats. The sequence of the rat muscle Ph-b was corrected based on our protein sequence mapping and a custom rat PHS2 sequence containing 17 differently located amino acid residues was used instead of the database sequence. The in vitro reaction of peroxynitrite with Ph-b resulted in the nitration of multiple Tyr residues at positions 51, 52, 113, 155, 185, 203, 262, 280, 404, 473, 731, and 732. Thus, the in vitro nitration conditions only mimic the nitration of a single Tyr residue observed in vivo suggesting alternative pathways controlling the accumulation of 3-NT in vivo. Our data show a correlation of age-dependent 3-NT accumulation with Ph-b inactivation.
PubMed ID
16616821 View in PubMed
Less detail

Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82661
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):362-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Ellingsen Dag G
Fladseth Geir
Daae Hanne L
Gjølstad Merete
Kjaerheim Kristina
Skogstad Marit
Olsen Raymond
Thorud Syvert
Molander Paal
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 8149 Dep, N-0033, Oslo, Norway. dag.ellingsen@stami.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):362-8
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cotinine - urine
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nicotine - analysis
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Restaurants
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence
Time Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p
PubMed ID
16528420 View in PubMed
Less detail

Allelic variants in the MYOC/TIGR gene in patients with primary open-angle, exfoliative glaucoma and unaffected controls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50701
Source
Ophthalmic Genet. 2003 Jun;24(2):103-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Mattias Jansson
Towa Marknell
Lidija Tomic
Lill-Inger Larsson
Claes Wadelius
Author Affiliation
Department of Genetics and Pathology, Unit of Clinical Genetics, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Ophthalmic Genet. 2003 Jun;24(2):103-10
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alleles
Case-Control Studies
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 - genetics
Comparative Study
Cytoskeletal Proteins
DNA Mutational Analysis
Exfoliation Syndrome - genetics
Eye Proteins - genetics
Female
Glaucoma, Open-Angle - genetics - pathology
Glycoproteins - genetics
Humans
Male
Mutation - genetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Trabecular Meshwork
Variation (Genetics) - genetics
Abstract
One of the leading causes of blindness in the world is glaucoma. The most common form is primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The only gene identified so far as being associated with POAG is the MYOC gene; 2-4% of the patients have been reported to carry mutations in this gene. Exfoliative glaucoma is a secondary glaucoma, in which one of the symptoms is exfoliations on the lens capsule and anterior segment of the eye. No gene has been identified as being associated with this variant. The aim of the present study was to analyze Swedish patient material for allelic variants and mutations in the coding region of the MYOC gene. Two hundred patients with POAG and 200 with exfoliative glaucoma were analyzed using enzymatic cleavage assay and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). An age-matched control group (n = 200), in whom glaucoma had been excluded, was also analyzed using dHPLC. Eight allele variants were identified, two of which were determined to be disease-causing mutations. These two disease-causing mutations were only found in POAG patients, indicating a prevalence of 1% in this patient group. This frequency is lower than that reported in other studies of other populations. No disease-causing mutations were found in the exfoliative glaucoma patients, indicating a fundamentally different genetic basis for that glaucoma variant.
PubMed ID
12789574 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alterations of kynurenic acid content in the retina in response to retinal ganglion cell damage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50713
Source
Vision Res. 2003 Mar;43(5):497-503
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Robert Rejdak
Tomasz Zarnowski
Waldemar A Turski
Tomasz Kocki
Zbigniew Zagorski
Eberhart Zrenner
Frank Schuettauf
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathophysiology of Vision and Neuro-Ophthalmology, Division of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Röntgenweg 11, D-72076, Tübingen, Germany. rrejdak@yahoo.com
Source
Vision Res. 2003 Mar;43(5):497-503
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cell Death - drug effects - physiology
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Kynurenic Acid - metabolism
Male
N-Methylaspartate - pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retina - metabolism
Retinal Degeneration - chemically induced - metabolism
Retinal Ganglion Cells - drug effects - metabolism
Abstract
The present study is the first to examine the modulation of retinal kynurenic acid (KYNA) content in response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced cell death in adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Adult Brown Norway rats were intravitreally injected with NMDA or PBS. Surviving RGC were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold and counted in wholemounts of retinas 2, 7 and 14 days after injection. Retinal KYNA content was measured by HPLC at the same time points. RGC numbers decreased significantly 2, 7 and 14 days after NMDA injection if compared to control retinas. KYNA concentration increased significantly two days after NMDA-injection. However, 7 and 14 days after injection retinal KYNA content was found markedly decreased in NMDA-treated eyes as compared to controls. It is conceivable that KYNA deficiency is causally related to the pathology of excitotoxic retinal diseases.
PubMed ID
12594996 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ambient and biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a coking plant.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208158
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1997 Jun 20;199(1-2):151-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-1997
Author
L. Pyy
M. Mäkelä
E. Hakala
K. Kakko
T. Lapinlampi
A. Lisko
E. Yrjänheikki
K. Vähäkangas
Author Affiliation
Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland. lpyy@occuphealth.fi
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1997 Jun 20;199(1-2):151-8
Date
Jun-20-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Benzo(a)pyrene - adverse effects
Biological Markers - urine
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Coke
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Finland
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Mutagens - adverse effects - analysis - metabolism
Occupational Exposure
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - urine
Pyrenes - analysis - metabolism
Reference Standards
Regression Analysis
Abstract
The exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was measured in a Finnish coking plant over a 7-year period (1988-1994), since the beginning of production. Hygienic measurements including dust and vapour sampling were performed and the correlations between the concentrations of airborne pyrene with the levels of pyrene metabolite 1-pyrenol in urine were calculated. The profile of measured 12 or 15 PAHs was very similar between mean concentrations of personal samples, which suggests that it is possible to calculate the concentrations of total PAH by using e.g. pyrene as a marker compound. Measurements suggest that the progress of working conditions has been very favourable because the mean exposure level of shift workers to benzo[a]pyrene has decreased from 2.5 micrograms/m3 to 0.3 micrograms/m3. This points to successful measures of technical prevention. The mean concentration of 1-pyrenol in urine has been 0.2-0.6 mumol/mol creatinine. The concentration increases slightly towards the end of the working day, but the correlation urinary pyrenol and air pyrene was weak. Therefore the usefulness of pyrenol level for predicting the pyrene concentration at low exposure level in the ambient air is very limited.
PubMed ID
9200858 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aminoterminal propeptide of the alpha1-homotrimer variant of human type I procollagen (hotPINP) in malignant pleural effusion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19430
Source
Anticancer Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4A):2293-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
S. Kauppila
A. Jukkola
J. Melkko
L. Risteli
T. Turpeeniemi-Hujanen
K. Vuorinen
J. Risteli
Author Affiliation
Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Anticancer Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4A):2293-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amino Acid Sequence
Breast Neoplasms - metabolism
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Collagen - isolation & purification
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - metabolism
Peptide Fragments - isolation & purification - metabolism
Phosphopeptides - isolation & purification
Pleural Effusion, Malignant - chemistry - metabolism
Procollagen - isolation & purification - metabolism
Abstract
The aminoterminal propeptide (hotPINP) of type I homotrimer, a putative malignancy-associated type I collagen variant, was purified for the first time and a method was established for its detection in pleural fluid. Samples of 58 patients, with malignant or benign disease, were studied with specific immunoassays for the two propeptides of type-I procollagen (PICP and PINP) and with HPLC-DEAE chromatography to separate the two PINP variants. HotPINP was present in 64% of both benign and malignant pleural effusion fluids, with the exception of malignant mesotheliomas, none of which showed the presence of hotPINP. Also the PICP to PINP ratios were lower than normal in both benign and malignant samples (altogether in 69% of samples), although this deviation was greater in malignancy. These two phenomena were independent of each other. As synthesis of the alpha1-homotrimer-variant of type-I collagen seems to be relatively common during the formation of pleural effusion, it may be generally related to a fibroproliferative reaction in the pleural wall.
PubMed ID
11724285 View in PubMed
Less detail

342 records – page 1 of 35.