2,3-Butanediol was mistakenly identified as ethylene glycol in plasma specimens from two alcoholic patients. The cyclic phenylboronate ester derivatives of 2,3-butanediol and ethylene glycol had the same retention time when OV-17 was used as the stationary phase for gas chromatography. This led to incorrect diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning and unnecessary invasive therapy. Plasma from two chronic alcoholics contained 2,3-butanediol at 3.5 and 3.4 mmol/L. The elimination half-life of 2,3-butanediol was 3.9 days when ethanol was administered during therapy for suspected ethylene glycol poisoning. Low concentrations of 2,3-butanediol might be present in blood of chronic alcoholics as a result of a novel pathway of intermediary metabolism associated with some forms of alcoholism. However, a more likely explanation for fairly high concentrations of 2,3-butanediol is enzymatic production from 2-butanone. This ketone occurs in denatured alcohol preparations often consumed by alcoholics in Sweden.
Many human gastrointestinal facultative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are therefore capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. We examined whether human gastrointestinal lactobacilli (three strains), bifidobacteria (five strains) and probiotic Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 are also able to metabolize ethanol and acetaldehyde in vitro. Acetaldehyde production by bacterial suspensions was determined by gas chromatography after a 1-h incubation with 22 mM ethanol. To determine the acetaldehyde consumption, the suspensions were incubated with 50 microM or 500 microM acetaldehyde as well as with 500 microM acetaldehyde and 22 mM ethanol, i.e. under conditions resembling those in the human colon after alcohol intake. The influence of growth media and bacterial concentration on the ability of lactobacilli to metabolize acetaldehyde and to produce acetate from acetaldehyde were determined. ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Neither measurable ADH nor ALDH activities were found in aerobically grown Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 strains. All the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains revealed a very limited capacity to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde in vitro. Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 had the highest acetaldehyde-metabolizing capacity, which increased significantly with increasing bacterial concentrations. This was associated with a marked production of acetate from acetaldehyde. The type of the growth media had no effect on acetaldehyde consumption. Addition of ethanol to the incubation media diminished the acetaldehyde-metabolizing capacity of all strains. However, in the presence of ethanol, Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 still demonstrated the highest capacity for acetaldehyde metabolism of all strains. These data suggest a beneficial impact of Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 on high gastrointestinal acetaldehyde levels following alcohol intake. The possible clinical implications of this finding remain to be established in in vitro studies.
The plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
We have investigated associations between the content of ALA in adipose tissue and the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes.
Incident cases of ischemic stroke among participants enrolled into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (n = 57,053) were identified by linkage with the Danish National Patient Register. Subsequently, all potential cases were validated and classified into ischemic stroke subtypes. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was determined by gas chromatography in cases and in a randomly drawn sub-cohort (n = 3500). Statistical analyses were performed using weighted Cox regression.
During a median of 13.4 years of follow-up, 1735 cases of total ischemic stroke were identified including 297 cases of large artery atherosclerosis, 772 cases of small-vessel occlusion, 99 cases of cardio-embolism, 91 cases with stroke of other etiology and 476 cases with stroke of undetermined etiology. The median content of ALA in adipose tissue within the sub-cohort was 0.84% (95% central range: 0.53-1.19%). Multivariable analyses showed a U-shaped association between adipose tissue content of ALA and the rate of total ischemic stroke, but this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.172). In analyses of ischemic stroke subtypes, we observed a statistically significant U-shaped association between ALA and the rate of ischemic stroke due to large artery atherosclerosis (p = 0.017), whereas no appreciable association was observed between ALA and the rate of small-vessel occlusion (p = 0.427). A positive but statistically non-significant association was observed between ALA and the rate of ischemic stroke due to cardio-embolism (p = 0.162).
The content of ALA in adipose tissue was statistically non-significantly U-shaped associated with risk of total ischemic stroke. For ischemic stroke subtypes a statistically significant, U-shaped association with large artery atherosclerosis was observed.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. RESULTS: Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r = -0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r = -0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r = -0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r = -0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r = -0.24; p
The author sets forth a gas chromatographic technique for the detection of monochloracetic acid (MCAA) and its sodium salts in the air, in skin washings, overalls extracts, and urine. The substances were identified as propyl ether. The analysis was performed on a chromatograph supplied with a plasma-ionizing detector on a 2 m-long glass column, with the chromatrone N-AW-DMCS. The detection capacity in the sample was 0.005 microgram/microliter, in the air for MCAA - 0.5 mg/m3, for MCAA sodium salt - 0.25 mg/m3. Standard deviation did not exceed 0.16. The technique was tested in industrial conditions.
Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may result in serious adverse fetal outcome. Non- or low alcoholic wines and beers may be a risk-reduction strategy to help alcohol-dependent individuals to prevent or limit ethanol consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify ethanol concentrations in Canadian beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content.
Forty-five different beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content in the Canadian market were tested for ethanol concentration using gas chromatography.
Thirteen (29%) of the beverages contained ethanol levels higher than the declared concentration on their label. Six beverages claiming to contain no alcohol were found to contain greater than 1% ethanol.
Pregnant women seeking replacement to alcoholic beverages may be misled by these labels, unknowingly exposing themselves and their unborn babies to ethanol.
To investigate the psychophysiologic mechanisms of an altered state of consciousness (ASC) produced via systematic mental training by correlating the results of multiple computerized bioelectrographic measurements.
All subjects were tested, using a set of modern computerized techniques comprising digital electroencephalography, measurement of the low-frequency bilateral activity of the brain, evoked bioelectrographic signals measured by computerized Kirlian photography (otherwise called gas discharge visualization [GDV]), self-reporting by subjects, linguistic testing, and profiling of mood states.
Sweden and Russia from 1996 to 1999.
Young volunteers (61) who underwent systematic mental training for not less than 7 weeks. Members of the control group (56) were not engaged in mental training.
All participants involved in the systematic mental training showed significant positive changes in their psychoemotional status after 7 weeks of mental training. All of the techniques showed specific changes that might be associated with an ASC in the subjects. The Kirlian (GDV) patterns showed a form of "explosive activation," which was stable, reproducible, and correlated with an ASC. This led the authors to introduce the concept of short-term activation of the induced bioelectrographic processes and enabled the properties of this ACS to be determined for the first time. There were practically no changes in the control group.
ASC activation took place with harmonization of the biopotential field of the brain, the psychic state, and the bioenergy fields. This is attributed to changes in both the psychosomatic and psychoenergetic autoregulation. This conclusion is of vital importance for understanding what happens in systematic mental training and understanding the fundamentals of bioenergetic and psychosomatic medicine.
It is a nutritional challenge for nectar-feeding insects to meet the amino acid requirements of oviposition. Here we investigate whether egg amino acids derive from larval diet or are synthesized from nectar sugar in four species of butterfly: Colias eurytheme, Speyeria mormonia, Euphydryas chalcedona, and Heliconius charitonia. These species exhibit a range of life history and differ in degree of shared phylogeny. We use 13C differences among plants to identify dietary sources of amino acid carbon, and we measure amino acid 13C using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. Egg essential amino acids derived solely from the larval diet, with no evidence for metabolic carbon remodeling. Carbon in nonessential amino acids from eggs derived primarily from nectar sugars, with consistent variation in amino acid turnover. There was no relationship between the nonessential amino acids of eggs and host plants, demonstrating extensive metabolic remodeling. Differences between species in carbon turnover were reflected at the molecular level, particularly by glutamate and aspartate. Essential amino acid 13C varied in a highly consistent pattern among larval host plants, reflecting a common isotopic "fingerprint" associated with plant biosynthesis. These data demonstrate conservative patterns of amino acid metabolism among Lepidoptera and the power of molecular stable isotope analyses for evaluating nutrient metabolism in situ.