Reaction of 4-(N-2-chloroethyl-N-methylamino)benzylphosphamides of oligonucleotides (RCl-(pT)16 and RCl-(pApC)6) with human chromatin in intact nuclei and with metaphase chromosomes has been investigated. The oligonucleotides were targeted to poly(A) and poly(TG)-repeating DNA sequences. It was found that the reagents alkylate DNA and some proteins due to specific complex formation. The affinity character of the reaction was proved by the fact that free corresponding oligonucleotides taken in excess or preliminary treatment of chromatin with S1-nuclease both prevent the biopolymers from modification. The results obtained evidence that in human chromatin there are open DNA sequences available for affinity modification with oligonucleotide derivatives. Analysis of patterns of modified proteins within these chromatin areas may give a key to the structure of these chromatin sites.
Organic solvents have been suspected to exert detrimental effects on human spermiogenesis. Styrene, which is both mutagenic and neurotoxic, was selected as a suitable organic solvent for further assessment of a possible effect on semen quality and sperm DNA damage.
Semen samples were collected from 23 reinforced plastics workers at the time of employment and after 6 months of styrene exposure and from 21 nonexposed farmers. Intra-individual changes in conventional semen parameters and sperm-DNA denaturation patterns were related to the internal dose of styrene exposure as measured by postshift urinary mandelic acid.
A statistically significant decline in sperm density was seen during styrene exposure from 63.5 to 46.0 million sperm/ml, whereas no decline was seen in the nonexposed subjects. The total sperm count was almost halved from an initial value of 175 million sperm/ejaculate. However, no relationship was apparent when the sperm parameters were related to internal levels of exposure. However, an exposure-response relationship was shown for DNA-denaturation patterns, but the numbers were small.
A declining sperm count following styrene exposure is suggested. However, the findings of the internal and external comparisons are inconsistent, and this may be due to the high intraindividual variability of semen parameters and the limited study size but may also be attributable to a weak internal exposure gradient. Spermatogenesis may be vulnerable to styrene exposure. However, due to the small numbers these findings are only preliminary.
Comment In: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 May;72(3):133-410392559
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to test the hypothesis that spermatozoal chromatin packaging changes with age and that aging affects the susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to oxidative damage. DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: Academic facility. PATIENT(S): Young (4 months) and old (21 months) Brown Norway rats. INTERVENTION(S): Spermatozoa were collected from the cauda epididymidis and were incubated in saline or H2O2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT(S): Thiols levels, chromatin condensation, DNA susceptibility to acid-induced DNA denaturation, and DNA damage were evaluated using monobromobimane, chromomycin A3 (CMA3), acridine orange, and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULT(S): Spermatozoa from old rats had 25% fewer disulfides but similar levels of free thiols as compared with young. The CMA3 staining was decreased by 13% with age. Levels of chromatin denaturation and DNA damage were similar in control groups. After exposure to oxidant, free thiols became oxidized by about 20% irrespective of age, but CMA3 staining changed little. The acridine orange assay, however, showed a trend for greater chromatin denaturation in spermatozoa from old rats after oxidant treatment. Furthermore, the DNA from spermatozoa of old rats was significantly more susceptible to developing DNA breaks and modification after oxidative challenge. CONCLUSION(S): Spermatozoal chromatin packaging changes with aging and vulnerability to oxidative damage increases.
The study of the chromatin's ultrastructure in the nuclei of hepatocytes under the adrenalin influence is very essential (e.g., the square of the perimembrane chromatin-PmCh). The experiments have been carried out on 10 male dogs. Experimental dogs received adrenalin intravenously--100 mkg per 1 kg of weight during 5 days. The pieces of tissue have been fixed by 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution ("Serva"--FRG) and postfixed by 2% four-oxide osmium, dehydrated in spirts and acetone, and poured into exposed mixtures. The ultrathin cuts have been got on ultramicrotome "LKB" (Sweden) Microscopic sections examined by electronic microscope "JEM-7" (Japan) increasing 10,000 times. Morphonutrical working have been carried out by Student method and expressed in conventional units. The relation of the area of perimembrane chromatin to the nucleus's area in hepatocytes of the controlled animals, is equal--to 0.21 and of the experimental ones--to 0.13 (decreased 1.6 times, 0.02 p 0.05).
BACKGROUND: The goals of our study were to examine chromatin packaging and integrity in spermatozoa taken from the caput and cauda epididymides of young (4-month-old) and old (21-month-old) Brown Norway rats and to assess whether spermatozoal sensitivity to oxidative treatments is altered with age. METHODS: Oxidative treatments consisted of (i) in vivo oxidative challenge by systemic administration of the glutathione-depleting drug l-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) and (ii) in vitro oxidative challenge by incubating collected spermatozoa with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Chromatin parameters assessed included quantification of thiols, nuclear chromomycin A3 (CMA3) penetration, DNA breaks by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and ease of DNA dissociation by acridine orange (AO) staining. RESULTS: In spermatozoa from older rats, we found decreases in thiols, CMA3 penetration and the percentage of cells that undergo DNA dissociation. Administration of BSO had oxidizing effects on the thiol groups. It also decreased CMA3 penetration and DNA dissociation and increased TUNEL staining. Furthermore, BSO treatment sensitized cauda epididymidis spermatozoa, from older animals, to H(2)O(2). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we show that spermatozoa from older rats have altered chromatin packaging and integrity and that spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis are more responsive to combined in vivo and in vitro oxidative challenge than spermatozoa from young rats.
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE), are widely found in the environment and considered potential endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC). Their impact on male fertility is still unknown.
To explore the hypothesis that POP is associated with altered sperm chromatin integrity, a cross-sectional study involving 707 adult males (193 Inuits from Greenland, 178 Swedish fishermen, 141 men from Warsaw, Poland, and 195 men from Kharkiv, Ukraine) was carried out. Serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), as a proxy of the total PCB burden, and of p,p'-DDE were determined. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to assess sperm DNA/chromatin integrity.
We found a strong and monotonically increasing DNA fragmentation index with increasing serum levels of CB-153 among European but not Inuit men, reaching a 60% higher average level in the highest exposure group. No significant associations were found between SCSA-derived parameters and p, p'-DDE serum concentrations.
These results suggest that human dietary PCB exposure might have a negative impact on the sperm chromatin integrity of adult males but additional issues, including differences in the genetic background and lifestyle habits, still need to be elucidated.
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the major metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are stable lipophilic compounds widely found in the environment and in the general population. They can enter the food chain, and their negative impact on male reproduction is currently under active scrutiny. To explore the hypothesis that environmental exposure to these compounds is associated with altered sperm chromatin structure integrity in human sperm, we conducted a study of 176 Swedish fishermen (with low and high consumption of fatty fish, a very important exposure source of POPs). We determined serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE, and we used the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) to assess sperm DNA/chromatin integrity. When CB-153 serum levels (individual dose range, 39-1,460 ng/g lipid) were categorized into equally sized quintiles, we found an association with the DNA fragmentation index (%DFI). A significantly lower %DFI was found in the lowest CB-153 quintile (
It was hypothesized that occupational exposure to pesticides during a spraying season causes changes in semen quality that might be detected in a longitudinal study. We analyzed the within-person changes in semen quality and reproductive hormones across a spraying season in groups of farmers using and not using pesticides. A total of 248 men collected two semen samples (participation rate: 32%). The median sperm concentration declined significantly from the first to the second sample in both groups, but there was no statistical difference in the decline between the two groups, unadjusted or adjusted. Only minor changes were found in sperm morphology, vitality, motility, sperm chromatin denaturation (SCSA), and reproductive hormones, and the differences in changes between the two groups were nonsignificant, or, in the opposite direction to the expected. There was no relation between the changes in sperm parameters in relation to pesticide exposure variables. In conclusion, use of pesticides by Danish farmers is not a likely cause of short-term effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones.