To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an on-going multicentre study of atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and young adults. We have collected risk factor data in the 21-year follow-up performed in 2001. The aims of this analysis were to examine the levels, secular trends and east-west difference in risk factors amongst young adults.
Population based follow-up study.
A total of 2283 participants aged 24-39 years in 2001 (63.5% of the original cohort).
Levels of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, blood pressure and smoking.
The mean serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in 24-39-year-old adults were 5.16, 3.27, 1.29 and 1.34 mmol L(-1), respectively. Total cholesterol (5.21 vs. 5.12 mmol L(-1), P = 0.046), HDL cholesterol (1.31 vs. 1.28 mmol L(-1), P = 0.027), systolic blood pressure (118 vs. 115 mmHg, P
The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects.
CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention.
We analyzed subfraction composition of HDL and cholesterol-acceptor properties of the plasma in Russian men with high and low HDL cholesterol. HDL were subfractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in agarose-polyacrylamide gel. The content of pre-beta1 HDL increased in individuals with high concentration of HDL cholesterol and strictly correlated with acception of cellular cholesterol in both groups.
The effects of acquired obesity on lipid profile and lipoprotein composition in rare BMI-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were studied.
Abdominal fat distribution, liver fat (magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy), fasting serum lipid profile (ultracentrifugation, gradient gel-electrophoresis, and colorimetric enzymatic methods), and lifestyle factors (questionnaires and diaries) were assessed in 15 BMI-discordant (within-pair difference [?] in BMI >3 kg/m2) and nin concordant (?BMI
AIM: To examine the relation between adiposity assessment methods (percentage body fat (%BF), BMI, and waist circumference (WC)) and individual metabolic risk factors (f-insulin, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and a combined measure of metabolic risk. METHODS: Crosssectional study of 300 males (BMI 20.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2)) and females (BMI 21.3 +/- 2.9 kg/m(2)) 17 years of age. F-insulin and components of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) were used as metabolic risk indicators, with samples stratified into BMI, %BF, and WC groups, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was expressed as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS: In males, diagnostic accuracy for HDL and f-insulin was poor to fair for BMI (AUC 0.70, p = 0.001; 0.60, p = 0.22), WC (0.68, p = 0.003; 0.63, p = 0.11), and %BF (0.65, p = 0.009; 0.66, p = 0.04). The diagnostic accuracy for triglycerides was greater for all three measures (BMI 0.92, WC 0.95, %BF 0.87; all p or =2 metabolic risk factors (AUCs 0.76-0.91, p
Atherosclerosis develops at an early age. We studied whether cholesterol metabolism in adolescence is related to coronary risk factors later during the adult years. A random population sample of 12-year-old (n=162), 15-year-old (n=158), and 18-year-old (n=148) boys who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study was studied for major coronary risk factors in 1980 and 2001. These values were related to noncholesterol sterols and their quartiles in 1980 (ie, markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis). In 1980, serum triglycerides, body mass index (BMI), and systolic blood pressure were lower and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was higher in high absorbers versus low absorbers. This difference, except HDL cholesterol, was maintained after follow-up (eg, in 2001, systolic blood pressure was 123+/-1 mm Hg in low absorbers vs 119+/-1 mm Hg in high absorbers, P
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age, 14.0 +/- 0.3 years) were randomized to either AIT (4 x 4 min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, each interval separated by 3 min at 70%, twice a week for 3 months) or to MTG (exercise, dietary and psychological advice, twice a month for 12 months). Follow-up testing occurred at 3 and 12 months. VO(2max) (maximal oxygen uptake) increased more after AIT compared with MTG, both at 3 months (11 compared with 0%; P
We present fractile data on serum lipids and apolipoproteins A-l and B for children and young adults from the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study cohort of 1986. The sample comprised 2370 fasting children and young adults (1114 males and 1256 females) aged 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 years. The determinations were performed in duplicate with standard methods. LDL-cholesterol values were calculated. The limits for clearly pathological values (exceeding the 97.5th percentile) irrespective of age and gender were 7.5 mmol/l, 5.0 mmol/l, 3.5 mmol/l and 1.4 g/l for serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, respectively. Corresponding values (below the 2.5th percentile) for HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-l, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol were 0.80 mmol/l, 1.0 mg/l, 0.20 mmol/l and 0.70 mmol/l, respectively. Approximately 79%, 33% and 7% of males had serum total cholesterol values greater than 4.0 mmol, 5.0 mmol/l and 6.0 mmol/l, respectively. Corresponding percentages for females were 87%, 43% and 10%. However, age-related differences were marked. The prevalence of values, e.g. greater than 6 mmol/l according to age, ranged from 6 to 13% in females and from 3 to 12% in males, emphasizing the need for age-specific reference values. Additionally, postpubertal values for total and LDL-cholesterol tended to be slightly lower compared to prepubertal values, indicating that the reference values for adults do not apply to adolescents and young adults. The age-related changes in lipid levels were evident in each fractile and were especially accentuated in higher fractiles. Fluctuations with age were more pronounced in males than in females. These results are intended to be applied as reference values for diagnosing dyslipidemias.
The offspring of individuals with a history of premature myocardial infarction are at increased risk of premature coronary attacks. The aim of this study was to determine parent/offspring associations of coronary risk factors in families affected by premature myocardial infarction and to compare these to corresponding control families.
The cohort of cases consisted of 71 male survivors of myocardial infarction and their 128 descendants (aged 7-18 years). As control families, 85 randomly selected healthy males with their 66 descendants were investigated. Besides traditional risk factors, serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), apolipoprotein (apo) E phenotypes and lipoprotein(a) were analyzed.
In the offspring of the patients, fibrinogen and atherogenic lipoprotein parameters were higher than in the corresponding controls, but hsCRP, lipoprotein(a) and anthropometric data did not differ between the groups. The adult-offspring positive correlations were detected in fibrinogen and in almost all measured lipoprotein fractions in the affected families; amongst the controls, the association was observed only for triglyceride levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated independent association of offspring apoB, apoA-I and fibrinogen levels with a family history of premature myocardial infarction.
The most informative predictors of future coronary attacks during childhood are apoB-100 and apoB/apoA-I ratio; serum hsCRP and lipoprotein(a) do not have predictive value in childhood.