In Frederiksberg Hospital in Denmark the therapeutic procedure for acute cholecystitis requiring operation was altered in 1983. Since then, acute cholecystitis has constituted 15% of all cholecystectomies which corresponds to 15 per 100,000 of the population per annum. 12% of these cases were without stones in the gallbladder. Cases of a calculous cholecystitis do not differ from calculous cases as regards age, sex, clinical history in the month preceding operation and the histological findings.
Conflicting data exist on the changes in the incidence of oesophageal (EAC) and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJAC). In addition, risk factors of the disease are only partly known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of EAC and EGJAC in Finland as well as risk factors of these cancers.
The complete number of new EAC and EGJAC cases between January 1980 and December 2007 in Finland was provided by the Finnish Cancer Registry. All treated EAC and EGJAC patients in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District between January 1980 and December 2007 were included in the study.
The incidence of EAC increased significantly in Finland. Barrett's oesophagus (BE) was associated with the risk of EAC and cholecystectomy with the risk of EGJAC.
A significant increase in EAC was found in Finland over the course of nearly 30 years, indicating that the increase in EAC in Finland is existent in the long term. BE was associated with the risk of EAC and cholecystectomy with the risk of EGJAC.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus, which is linked to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, is associated with reflux of bile. Duodenogastric reflux is increased after cholecystectomy. This study aims to evaluate if cholecystectomy is associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of cholecystectomized patients in Sweden between 1965 and 1997 cross-linked with the Swedish Cancer Register. RESULTS: Cholecystectomized patients had an increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.8). Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma was not found to be associated with cholecystectomy (SIR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.1). Patients with gallstone disease on whom surgery was not performed did not have an increased risk of adenocarcinoma or squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus. CONCLUSIONS: Cholecystectomy is associated with a moderately increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, possibly by the toxic effect of refluxed duodenal juice on the esophageal mucosa. Further studies are needed regarding the link between bile reflux and esophageal carcinogenesis.
Bile duct injuries in laparoscopic cholecystectomy are briefly reviewed. The Norwegian National Cholecystectomy Registry was started on April 1, 1993, to collect data from most Norwegian surgical departments. in the period April 1, 1993-May 31, 1995, common bile duct (CBD) injuries necessitating treatment were reported in 0.61% of 2,612 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in 0.74% of 674 open cholecystectomies. Early diagnosis is mandatory and the treatment is then simple. Delayed diagnosis is dangerous and the treatment may then be difficult. This field seems to show a difference between publications and the real world.
Gallstones represent the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in Sweden. Epidemiological data concerning timing of cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with first attack of mild acute biliary pancreatitis (MABP) are scarce. Our aim was to analyse readmissions for biliary disease, cholecystectomy within one year, and mortality within 90 days of index admission for MABP.
Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for patients with first attack acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988-2003. Mortality was calculated as case fatality rate (CFR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). MABP was defined as acute pancreatitis of biliary aetiology without mortality during an index stay of 10 days or shorter. Patients were analysed according to four different treatment policies: Cholecystectomy during index stay (group 1), no cholecystectomy during index stay but within 30 days of index admission (group 2), sphincterotomy but not cholecystectomy within 30 days of index admission (group 3), and neither cholecystectomy nor sphincterotomy within 30 days of index admission (group 4).
Of 11636 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, 8631 patients (74%) met the criteria for MABP. After exclusion of those with cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy during the year before index admission (N = 212), 8419 patients with MABP remained for analysis. Patients in group 1 and 2 were significantly younger than patients in group 3 and 4. Length of index stay differed significantly between the groups, from 4 (3-6) days, (representing median, 25 and 75 percentiles) in group 2 to 7 (5-8) days in groups 1. In group 1, 4.9% of patients were readmitted at least once for biliary disease within one year after index admission, compared to 100% in group 2, 62.5% in group 3, and 76.3% in group 4. One year after index admission, 30.8% of patients in group 3 and 47.7% of patients in group 4 had undergone cholecystectomy. SMR did not differ between the four groups.
Cholecystectomy during index stay slightly prolongs this stay, but drastically reduces readmissions for biliary indications.
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A higher risk of complications and mortality has previously been proven in selected settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether length of stay differentiates throughout the week and register if intra- and postoperative complications vary on weekends compared to weekdays.
The population originated from the Danish Cholecystectomy Database. It consists of adult patients, who had a cholecystectomy performed by standard four-port laparoscopic or open surgery. Adjusted analyses were used to study if day of the week had an influence on conversion, readmission within 30 days, post-operative supplemental procedures within 30 days, and variance in postoperative length of stay across the week.
A total of 28,759 patients were included in the study. We found no difference in conversion rate, readmission within 30 days, or post-operative procedures within 30 days between week time and weekend time. A longer postoperative length of stay was observed for patients operated on Fridays and Saturdays even though surgical complication rates were alike between weekdays. Patients with acute cholecystitis had a longer length of stay on Saturdays.
We found no evidence of a higher risk of conversions, post-operative procedures, or readmission during weekends compared with weekdays. Despite this, a prolonged length of stay was observed in patients operated with cholecystectomy on Fridays and Saturdays. The observed difference could be due to ward rounds on weekends mainly focus on the sickest patients leaving less time for discharge.
OBJECTIVE: Information on mortality after cholecystectomy in defined populations is limited. In this study we examined the case fatality rates and mortality ratios, based on register data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for all patients undergoing cholecystectomy in Sweden in 1987-99. Mortality risk was calculated as the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). RESULTS: From 1 January 1987 to 1 December 1999, 123,099 patients underwent cholecystectomy for acute or chronic gallbladder disease. Between 1987-91 and 1995-99, the incidence of cholecystectomy increased by 13%, median age of patients decreased and the proportion of women increased. From 1995 to 1999, 32% of all cholecystectomies were completed as open cholecystectomy. During this period, 82% of patients aged 70 years or older with acute gallstone disease had an open cholecystectomy. For patients with chronic gallstone disease, the proportion was 43%. Postoperative crude mortality within 30 days for all patients was 0.4%. Patients with acalculous gallbladder disease had double the mortality risk compared with patients with calculous disease, and patients with acute cholecystitis had double the risk compared with patients with chronic disease. High age, previous hospital admission for conditions other than gallbladder disease, and cholecystectomy completed as an open procedure increased the risk, whereas gender and calendar year did not significantly affect the mortality risk. Biliary tract diseases accounted for 61% of all postoperative deaths, whereas 26% were due to cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: During the 1990s, cholecystectomy incidence increased, whereas postoperative mortality risk remained unchanged. In order to further reduce the mortality risk, particular attention should be paid to elderly and frail patients and to patients with acalculous gallbladder disease.
The purpose of this study was to compare cholecystectomy in Sweden (pop. 8.9 million) 1989 to 1994 when the diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was completed, focusing on long hospital admissions as a proxy indicator of adverse events. This was an observational study of all patients operated on with cholecystectomy in 1989 and 1994 (n = 19,432) from the National Inpatient Registry. The risk of a long admission was analyzed by multivariate analyses. Odds ratios of long admissions were computed considering gender, age groups, acute or chronic gallstone disease, 1989 and 1994, county level of operations per 1000 inhabitants, and hospital categories. Stratified analyses were performed by acuteness of disease, and year. Long admissions were defined as lasting longer than 20 days in 1989 and 14 days in 1994. Odds ratios of a long admission increased steeply with age and acute gallstone disease. The county level of operations per 1000 inhabitants had no influence on risk nor did hospital category. The absolute number of those operated on with an acute gallstone disease changed little between 1989 and 1994, whereas operations for chronic disease increased significantly. Stratification revealed that their risk of a long admission was increased both in 1989 and 1994, particularly for women. Those with chronic gallstone disease had no increased risk. After the introduction of the laparoscope and a rise in the number of cholecystectomies, patients with chronic gallstone disease seem to have a constant risk of long hospital stay. However, because patients with acute disease had an increased risk in both 1989 and 1994, further longitudinal analyses are needed to analyze the level of complications in this group.
How well can hospital discharge abstracts be used to estimate patient health status? This paper compares information on comorbidity obtained from hospital discharge abstracts for patients undergoing prostatectomy or cholecystectomy at a Winnipeg teaching hospital with clinical data on preoperative medical conditions prospectively collected during an Anesthesia Follow-up study. The diagnostic information on cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and metabolic disorders showed considerable agreement, ranging from 65 to over 90% correspondence across the two data sets. Certain conditions noted by the anesthesiologist were often absent from the claims data; cardiovascular disease was recorded in the clinical data but absent from the claims for 31% of prostatectomy and 17% of cholecystectomy cases. Such patients were less likely to have been assigned a high score on the ASA Physical Status measure or to have high-risk diagnoses on the hospital file. Similar findings resulted from comparing the two sources in their ability to predict such adverse outcomes as mortality and readmission to hospital: the anesthesia file generally included less serious comorbidity.
Can we accept the statistics provided by the Ministry of Health, which uses large computerized databases? Through MEDECHO, the Ministry provides to hospital managers, reports cards on different interventions. These reports compare different hospitals performances. Surgeons involved in the process hesitate to accept this information. Using the results of the performance of cholecystectomy provided by this system (Gr: A), we compared the same cohort (1 April-31 December 1996 = 346 cholecystectomies) but using specific criteria determined as relevant to our surgeons (Gr: B). The rate of complication gives a crude aftermath and no attempt was used to adjust for severity. The MEDECHO data are adjusted for severity. The global rate of complications is similar Gr: A 11%, Gr: B 12%. Major complication rate for pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage and biliary duct trauma are identical. The rate of surgical site infection is higher in Gr: B (5% vs. 2%). The patients are seen in the outpatient clinic and these observations are not included by the analytical system unless the patient has been readmitted. For our hospital, the MEDECHO data are valid and reliable even though they underestimated the wound infection rate. These results could be explained by an appropriate interpretation of the code system by the archivist and by the surgeons' precision to complete the summary sheet of hospitalization. We can conclude that these data can be used as a means to evaluate the quality of outcome of a surgical service.