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Can pelagic ciliates indicate vertical variation in the water quality status of western Arctic pelagic ecosystems?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295582
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Aug; 133:182-190
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2018
Author
Guangjian Xu
EunJin Yang
Yong Jiang
Kyung-Ho Cho
Jinyoung Jung
Youngju Lee
Sung-Ho Kang
Author Affiliation
Division of Polar Ocean Science, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Republic of Korea.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Aug; 133:182-190
Date
Aug-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Ammonia - analysis
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Chlorophyll - analysis
Ciliophora
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Oceans and Seas
Seasons
Water Quality
Abstract
The vertical pattern of pelagic ciliate communities was observed at eight layers in the Chukchi Sea and the northern Bering Sea of the western Arctic Ocean during the summer sea-ice reduction period (August 5 to August 24, 2016). A total of 44 ciliate species were identified, with seven species dominated the communities in the water column. Multivariate and univariate analyses demonstrated that: (1) community structures of ciliates vary significantly among eight water depths; (2) variations in the vertical distribution of ciliates were significantly correlated with changes in physicochemical variables, especially the ammonia; (3) the distributions of the three dominant species were significantly and positively related to the chlorophyll a and ammonia concentrations; and (4) species richness and abundance were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of ammonia and chlorophyll a. These results suggest that pelagic ciliates may reflect vertical variations in the water quality status of western Arctic ecosystems.
PubMed ID
30041306 View in PubMed
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Change in Emiliania huxleyi Virus Assemblage Diversity but Not in Host Genetic Composition during an Ocean Acidification Mesocosm Experiment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286113
Source
Viruses. 2017 Mar 08;9(3)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-08-2017
Author
Andrea Highfield
Ian Joint
Jack A Gilbert
Katharine J Crawfurd
Declan C Schroeder
Source
Viruses. 2017 Mar 08;9(3)
Date
Mar-08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon Dioxide - metabolism
Chlorophyll - analysis
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
Genetic Variation - drug effects
Haptophyta - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - virology
Nitrates - metabolism
Norway
Phosphates - metabolism
Phycodnaviridae - classification - genetics - growth & development - isolation & purification
Seawater - chemistry - microbiology - virology
Abstract
Effects of elevated pCO2 on Emiliania huxleyi genetic diversity and the viruses that infect E. huxleyi (EhVs) have been investigated in large volume enclosures in a Norwegian fjord. Triplicate enclosures were bubbled with air enriched with CO2 to 760 ppmv whilst the other three enclosures were bubbled with air at ambient pCO2; phytoplankton growth was initiated by the addition of nitrate and phosphate. E. huxleyi was the dominant coccolithophore in all enclosures, but no difference in genetic diversity, based on DGGE analysis using primers specific to the calcium binding protein gene (gpa) were detected in any of the treatments. Chlorophyll concentrations and primary production were lower in the three elevated pCO2 treatments than in the ambient treatments. However, although coccolithophores numbers were reduced in two of the high-pCO2 treatments; in the third, there was no suppression of coccolithophores numbers, which were very similar to the three ambient treatments. In contrast, there was considerable variation in genetic diversity in the EhVs, as determined by analysis of the major capsid protein (mcp) gene. EhV diversity was much lower in the high-pCO2 treatment enclosure that did not show inhibition of E. huxleyi growth. Since virus infection is generally implicated as a major factor in terminating phytoplankton blooms, it is suggested that no study of the effect of ocean acidification in phytoplankton can be complete if it does not include an assessment of viruses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28282890 View in PubMed
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Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285508
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175808
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Julia A F Langer
Rahul Sharma
Susanne I Schmidt
Sebastian Bahrdt
Henriette G Horn
María Algueró-Muñiz
Bora Nam
Eric P Achterberg
Ulf Riebesell
Maarten Boersma
Marco Thines
Klaus Schwenk
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175808
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alveolata - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Chlorophyll - analysis
Cryptophyta - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
DNA - chemistry - isolation & purification - metabolism
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Fungi - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Oceans and Seas
Plankton - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S - chemistry - isolation & purification - metabolism
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sweden
Abstract
The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta). Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 µatm) and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28445483 View in PubMed
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Comparing new and conventional methods to estimate benthic algal biomass and composition in freshwaters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262678
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014 Nov;16(11):2627-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Maria Kahlert
Brendan G McKie
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014 Nov;16(11):2627-34
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomass
Chlorophyll - analysis
Chlorophyta - growth & development
Cyanobacteria - growth & development
Diatoms - growth & development
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fresh Water - chemistry
Nitrogen - analysis
Phosphorus - analysis
Plankton - growth & development
Sweden
Abstract
We compared conventional microscope-based methods for quantifying biomass and community composition of stream benthic algae with output obtained for these parameters from a new instrument (the BenthoTorch), which measures fluorescence of algal pigments in situ. Benthic algae were studied in 24 subarctic oligotrophic (1.7-26.9, median 7.2 µg total phosphorus L(-1)) streams in Northern Sweden. Readings for biomass of the total algal mat, quantified as chlorophyll a, did not differ significantly between the BenthoTorch (median 0.52 µg chlorophyll a cm(-2)) and the conventional method (median 0.53 µg chlorophyll a cm(-2)). However, quantification of community composition of the benthic algal mat obtained using the BenthoTorch did not match those obtained from conventional methods. The BenthoTorch indicated a dominance of diatoms, whereas microscope observations showed a fairly even distribution between diatoms, blue-green algae (mostly nitrogen-fixing) and green algae (mostly large filamentous), and also detected substantial biovolumes of red algae in some streams. These results most likely reflect differences in the exact parameters quantified by the two methods, as the BenthoTorch does not account for variability in cell size and the presence of non-chlorophyll bearing biomass in estimating the proportion of different algal groups, and does not distinguish red algal chlorophyll from that of other algal groups. Our findings suggest that the BenthoTorch has utility in quantifying biomass expressed as µg chlorophyll a cm(-2), but its output for the relative contribution of different algal groups to benthic algal biomass should be used with caution.
PubMed ID
25277172 View in PubMed
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Comparison of mercury concentrations in landlocked, resident, and sea-run fish (Salvelinus spp.) from Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101809
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 Jun;30(6):1459-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Heidi Swanson
Nikolaus Gantner
Karen A Kidd
D C G Muir
James D Reist
Author Affiliation
Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. heidikswanson@yahoo.ca
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 Jun;30(6):1459-67
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Chlorophyll - analysis
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Fresh Water - chemistry
Humans
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Nunavut
Seafood - statistics & numerical data
Seawater - chemistry
Trout - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Mercury concentrations ([Hg]) in Arctic food fish often exceed guidelines for human subsistence consumption. Previous research on two food fish species, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), indicates that anadromous fish have lower [Hg] than nonanadromous fish, but there have been no intraregional comparisons. Also, no comparisons of [Hg] among anadromous (sea-run), resident (marine access but do not migrate), and landlocked (no marine access) life history types of Arctic char and lake trout have been published. Using intraregional data from 10 lakes in the West Kitikmeot area of Nunavut, Canada, we found that [Hg] varied significantly among species and life history types. Differences among species-life history types were best explained by age-at-size and C:N ratios (indicator of lipid); [Hg] was significantly and negatively related to both. At a standardized fork length of 500?mm, lake trout had significantly higher [Hg] (mean 0.17?µg/g wet wt) than Arctic char (0.09?µg/g). Anadromous and resident Arctic char had significantly lower [Hg] (each 0.04?µg/g) than landlocked Arctic char (0.19?µg/g). Anadromous lake trout had significantly lower [Hg] (0.12?µg/g) than resident lake trout (0.18?µg/g), but no significant difference in [Hg] was seen between landlocked lake trout (0.21?µg/g) and other life history types. Our results are relevant to human health assessments and consumption guidance and will inform models of Hg accumulation in Arctic fish.
PubMed ID
21381088 View in PubMed
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The cumulation of Wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.) accessions: the possibility of species preservation and usage in medicine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185464
Source
Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39(4):411-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Silvija Rimkiene
Ona Ragazinskiene
Nijole Savickiene
Author Affiliation
Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania. krimkus@info.lzua.lt
Source
Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39(4):411-6
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ascorbic Acid - analysis
Carboxylic Acids - analysis
Carotenoids - analysis
Chlorophyll - analysis
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Flavonoids - analysis
Flavonols
Humans
Phenols - analysis
Photometry
Phytotherapy
Pigments, Biological - analysis
Plant Preparations - therapeutic use
Plant Roots
Tannins - analysis
Viola - chemistry - physiology
Abstract
Wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.) has a history in folk medicine of helping respiratory problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and cold symptoms. The drugs and extracts are prepared from raw material of pansy; it is a component of some prepared antitussives, cholagogues, dermatological medicines, roborants and tonics, alternatives, and anti-phlebitis remedies. Wild pansy is indigenous to or naturalized in large parts of Europe and the Middle East as far as Central Asia, also found through the United States. In the Lithuanian flora wild pansy habitats areas have been fast reducing; this not only limits the availability of the reserves of medicinal raw materials for pharmacy and therapy needs but also causes a menace to survival of species. The reasons of reduction of natural habitats and areas of wild pansy are not only unfavorable meteorological conditions (including summer droughts) but also the competition of different herbs and irrational human activities. The opportunities of preservation of the species wild pansy need to be cultivated and the most exhaustive adaptation research should be performed.
PubMed ID
12738912 View in PubMed
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Effects on the function of three trophic levels in marine plankton communities under stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83015
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2006 Apr 20;77(1):105-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-20-2006
Author
Hjorth M.
Dahllöf I.
Forbes V E
Author Affiliation
Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2006 Apr 20;77(1):105-15
Date
Apr-20-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacteria - drug effects - genetics
Biodiversity
Carbon Isotopes - analysis
Chlorophyll - analysis
Ecosystem
Isotope Labeling
Multivariate Analysis
Organometallic Compounds - analysis - toxicity
Phytoplankton - drug effects
Pyridines - analysis - toxicity
Seawater
Time Factors
Zinc - toxicity
Zooplankton - drug effects - metabolism
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate functional responses of natural marine planktonic communities to stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Isotope labelling techniques (14C) were applied to study bacterial incorporation of leucine, photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton and grazing of labelled prey by zooplankton communities for 6 days after exposures to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50 nM ZPT in a mesocosm experiment in Isefjord, Denmark. Significant direct effects were visible on chlorophyll a concentrations, which decreased in all exposed communities, to between 48 and 36% of control concentrations on Day 3, 1 day after the last exposure. Phytoplankton activities were also significantly affected on Day 3 with activities between 9 and 26% of control levels, as was zooplankton activities in the 25 and 50 nM exposures. In the 50 nM exposure the total community zooplankton activity was reduced to 25+/-4%, and per individual to 46+/-11% of control levels. Bacterial communities showed positive indirect effects with high activities (up to 183+/-40%) due to higher amounts of available substrate from algal death. Pollution induced community tolerance analyses performed on phytoplankton and bacterial communities at the end of the experiment indicated a development of increased tolerance for phytoplankton in the 50 nM exposed communities, whereas there were no changes in tolerance in the bacterial communities. Multivariate analysis of the integrated functional response by the plankton communities revealed a significant difference (p
PubMed ID
16352351 View in PubMed
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Goals and remedial strategies for water quality and wildlife management in a coastal lagoon--a case-study of Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87194
Source
J Environ Manage. 2008 Feb;86(3):498-519
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Håkanson Lars
Bryhn Andreas C
Author Affiliation
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villav. 16, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. Lars.Hakanson@geo.uu.se
Source
J Environ Manage. 2008 Feb;86(3):498-519
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algae - growth & development - metabolism
Animals
Biomass
Chlorophyll - analysis
Conservation of Natural Resources
Denmark
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Models, Theoretical
Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
Nitrogen - analysis
Phosphorus - analysis
Phytoplankton - growth & development - metabolism
Plants - growth & development - metabolism
Seasons
Seawater - analysis
Sodium Chloride - analysis
Water Pollution - analysis - prevention & control
Abstract
The aim of this work is (1) to discuss approaches and tools to set management goals using operational indicators for coastal management (i.e., indicators that are easy to measure, understand and predict) and validated predictive models and (2) to discuss remedial strategies for sustainable coastal management regarding water quality and the abundance of fish, waterfowl and large aquatic plants. These approaches are exemplified using data from Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark, which has undergone two major regime shifts during the last decades. This work discusses the changes taken place during the period from 1980 to 2004 (when there are good empirical data). For Ringkøbing Fjord, which is a very shallow, well-oxygenated lagoon dominated by resuspension processes, we have targeted on the following operational indicators, which are meant to reflect seasonal median values for the entire defined coastal area (the ecosystem scale) and not conditions at individual sites or data from shorter time periods: Secchi depth (as a standard measure of water clarity) and chlorophyll-a concentrations (as a key measure of algal biomass). The operational indicators are regulated by a set of standard abiotic factors, such as salinity, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nutrient concentrations (N and P), coastal morphometry and water exchange. Such relationships are quantified using well-tested, general quantitative models, which illustrate how these indicators are interrelated and how they reflect fundamental aspects of coastal ecosystems. We demonstrate that the regime shift in the lagoon can be modelled and quantitatively explained and is related to changes in salinity and nutrient inflow. A very important threshold is linked to increased salinities in the lagoon. For example, when the mean annual salinity is higher than about 9.5 per thousand, large numbers of saltwater species of clams can survive and influence the structure and function of the ecosystem in profound ways. The model also illustrates the dynamic response to changes in nutrient loading. We have presented several management strategies with the goal of keeping the Secchi depth at 2m, which would stimulate the growth of higher aquatic plants, which are fundamental for fish production and bird abundance in the lagoon. Given the fact that the Secchi depth depends on many variable factors (temperature, TP-inflow from land, salinity, changes in biomasses of macrophytes and clams, which are accounted for in these simulations), our results indicate that in practice it will likely be very difficult to reach that goal. However, it would be realistic to maintain a Secchi depth of 1.5m if the variability in salinity is minimized and the mean salinity is kept at about 10.2%.
PubMed ID
17275160 View in PubMed
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High colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in surface waters of the central-eastern Arctic Ocean: Implications for biogeochemistry and ocean color algorithms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289894
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190838
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo
Benjamin Rabe
Ilka Peeken
Astrid Bracher
Author Affiliation
Phytooptics Group, Physical Oceanography of Polar Seas, Climate Sciences Division, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190838
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Algorithms
Arctic Regions
Chlorophyll - analysis
Color
Oceans and Seas
Organic Chemicals - chemistry
Physical Phenomena
Solubility
Spectrum Analysis - methods
Abstract
As consequences of global warming sea-ice shrinking, permafrost thawing and changes in fresh water and terrestrial material export have already been reported in the Arctic environment. These processes impact light penetration and primary production. To reach a better understanding of the current status and to provide accurate forecasts Arctic biogeochemical and physical parameters need to be extensively monitored. In this sense, bio-optical properties are useful to be measured due to the applicability of optical instrumentation to autonomous platforms, including satellites. This study characterizes the non-water absorbers and their coupling to hydrographic conditions in the poorly sampled surface waters of the central and eastern Arctic Ocean. Over the entire sampled area colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominates the light absorption in surface waters. The distribution of CDOM, phytoplankton and non-algal particles absorption reproduces the hydrographic variability in this region of the Arctic Ocean which suggests a subdivision into five major bio-optical provinces: Laptev Sea Shelf, Laptev Sea, Central Arctic/Transpolar Drift, Beaufort Gyre and Eurasian/Nansen Basin. Evaluating ocean color algorithms commonly applied in the Arctic Ocean shows that global and regionally tuned empirical algorithms provide poor chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates. The semi-analytical algorithms Generalized Inherent Optical Property model (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), on the other hand, provide robust estimates of Chl-a and absorption of colored matter. Applying GSM with modifications proposed for the western Arctic Ocean produced reliable information on the absorption by colored matter, and specifically by CDOM. These findings highlight that only semi-analytical ocean color algorithms are able to identify with low uncertainty the distribution of the different optical water constituents in these high CDOM absorbing waters. In addition, a clustering of the Arctic Ocean into bio-optical provinces will help to develop and then select province-specific ocean color algorithms.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29304182 View in PubMed
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Laminarin is a major molecule in the marine carbon cycle.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306575
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 03 24; 117(12):6599-6607
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-24-2020
Author
Stefan Becker
Jan Tebben
Sarah Coffinet
Karen Wiltshire
Morten Hvitfeldt Iversen
Tilmann Harder
Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
Author Affiliation
MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 03 24; 117(12):6599-6607
Date
03-24-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Carbon - metabolism
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Chlorophyll - analysis
Diatoms - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Glucans - analysis - metabolism
Oceans and Seas
Seawater
Abstract
Marine microalgae sequester as much CO2 into carbohydrates as terrestrial plants. Polymeric carbohydrates (i.e., glycans) provide carbon for heterotrophic organisms and constitute a carbon sink in the global oceans. The quantitative contributions of different algal glycans to cycling and sequestration of carbon remain unknown, partly because of the analytical challenge to quantify glycans in complex biological matrices. Here, we quantified a glycan structural type using a recently developed biocatalytic strategy, which involves laminarinase enzymes that specifically cleave the algal glycan laminarin into readily analyzable fragments. We measured laminarin along transects in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans and during three time series in the North Sea. These data revealed a median of 26 ± 17% laminarin within the particulate organic carbon pool. The observed correlation between chlorophyll and laminarin suggests an annual production of algal laminarin of 12 ± 8 gigatons: that is, approximately three times the annual atmospheric carbon dioxide increase by fossil fuel burning. Moreover, our data revealed that laminarin accounted for up to 50% of organic carbon in sinking diatom-containing particles, thus substantially contributing to carbon export from surface waters. Spatially and temporally variable laminarin concentrations in the sunlit ocean are driven by light availability. Collectively, these observations highlight the prominent ecological role and biogeochemical function of laminarin in oceanic carbon export and energy flow to higher trophic levels.
PubMed ID
32170018 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.