Occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel was investigated. The aims of this study were to assess trichloramine exposure levels and exhaled nitric oxide in relation to the prevalence of airway symptoms in swimming pool facilities and to determine protein effects in the upper respiratory tract.
The presence of airway symptoms related to work was examined in 146 individuals working at 46 indoor swimming pool facilities. Levels of trichloramine, as well as exhaled nitric oxide, were measured in five facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation and four facilities with no airway irritation among the personnel. Nasal lavage fluid was collected, and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach.
17 % of the swimming pool personnel reported airway symptoms related to work. The levels of trichloramine in the swimming pool facilities ranged from 0.04 to 0.36 mg/m(3). There was no covariance between trichloramine levels, exhaled nitric oxide and prevalence of airway symptoms. Protein profiling of the nasal lavage fluid showed that the levels alpha-1-antitrypsin and lactoferrin were significantly higher, and S100-A8 was significantly lower in swimming pool personnel.
This study confirms the occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel. Our results indicate altered levels of innate immunity proteins in the upper airways that may pose as potential biomarkers. However, swimming pool facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation could not be explained by higher trichloramine exposure levels. Further studies are needed to clarify the environmental factors in indoor swimming pools that cause airway problems and affect the immune system.
Arctic climate change from the Paleocene epoch to the present is reconstructed with the objective of assessing its recent and future impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic. A recurring theme in Earth's paleoclimate record is the importance of the Arctic atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere in regulating global climate on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A second recurring theme in this record is the importance of freshwater export from the Arctic in regulating global- to basin-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Since the 1970s, historically unprecedented changes have been observed in the Arctic as climate warming has increased precipitation, river discharge, and glacial as well as sea-ice melting. In addition, modal shifts in the atmosphere have altered Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and the export of freshwater into the North Atlantic. The combination of these processes has resulted in variable patterns of freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean and the emergence of salinity anomalies that have periodically freshened waters in the North Atlantic. Since the early 1990s, changes in Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and freshwater export have been associated with two types of ecological responses in the North Atlantic. The first of these responses has been an ongoing series of biogeographic range expansions by boreal plankton, including renewal of the trans-Arctic exchanges of Pacific species with the Atlantic. The second response was a dramatic regime shift in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Atlantic that occurred during the early 1990s. This regime shift resulted from freshening and stratification of the shelf waters, which in turn could be linked to changes in the abundances and seasonal cycles of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and higher trophic-level consumer populations. It is predicted that the recently observed ecological responses to Arctic climate change in the North Atlantic will continue into the near future if current trends in sea ice, freshwater export, and surface ocean salinity continue. It is more difficult to predict ecological responses to abrupt climate change in the more distant future as tipping points in the Earth's climate system are exceeded.
In the article there are presented the results of the evaluation of cytokine profile in males working in the production of vinyl chloride (trained workers without signs of disorders of the neuropsychic status and persons with early signs of neurointoxication with vinyl chloride, characterized by asthenic (emotional lability) disorder with the autonomic dysfunction). There are established differences of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in workers in dependence on the severity of disorders of the neuropsychic status. The most pronounced imbalance of cytokines was in workers with initial manifestations of neurointoxication with vinyl chloride. The increase in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-8, TNF-a) in trained employees without signs of disorders of the neuropsychic status is the one of the early and sensitive indices characterizing the formation ofthe body's resistance to exposure of adverse factors of production.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 µg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 µg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 µg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 µg/g), fresh pork (6.9 µg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 µg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 µg/g), roast beef (1.3 µg/g), lamb (1.2 µg/g), and organ meats (0.20 µg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.
Chlorination is a method commonly used to keep indoor swimming pool water free from pathogens. However, chlorination of swimming pools produces several potentially hazardous by-products as the chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic matter. Up till now, exposure assessments in indoor swimming pools have relied on stationary measurements at the poolside, used as a proxy for personal exposure. However, measurements at fixed locations are known to differ from personal exposure.
Eight public swimming pool facilities in four Swedish cities were included in this survey. Personal and stationary sampling was performed during day or evening shift. Samplers were placed at different fixed positions around the pool facilities, at ~1.5 m above the floor level and 0-1 m from the poolside. In total, 52 personal and 110 stationary samples of trichloramine and 51 personal and 109 stationary samples of trihalomethanes, were collected.
The average concentration of trichloramine for personal sampling was 71 µg m(-3), ranging from 1 to 240 µg m(-3) and for stationary samples 179 µg m(-3), ranging from 1 to 640 µg m(-3). The air concentrations of chloroform were well below the occupational exposure limit (OEL). For the linear regression analysis and prediction of personal exposure to trichloramine from stationary sampling, only data from personal that spent >50% of their workday in the pool area were included. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.693 and a significant regression coefficient ß of 0.621; (95% CI = 0.329-0.912, P = 0.001).
The trichloramine exposure levels determined in this study were well below the recommended air concentration level of 500 µg m(-3); a WHO reference value based on stationary sampling. Our regression data suggest a relation between personal exposure and area sampling of 1:2, implying an OEL of 250 µg m(-3) based on personal sampling.
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2004 Apr;61(4):37415031401
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2003 Jun;60(6):385-9412771389
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2003 Apr;47(3):179-8512639831
Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).