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Concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants in bowhead whale tissues and other biota from northern Alaska: implications for human exposure from a subsistence diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4734
Source
Environ Res. 2005 Jul;98(3):329-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
P F Hoekstra
T M O'Hara
S M Backus
C. Hanns
D C G Muir
Author Affiliation
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ont., Canada L7R4A6.
Source
Environ Res. 2005 Jul;98(3):329-40
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Biodiversity
Biological Availability
Biotransformation
Chlordan - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
DDT - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Diet
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism - toxicity
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Lindane - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Tissue Distribution
Whales - metabolism
Abstract
Bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus; n = 5) blubber, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, diaphragm, tongue, and uncooked maktak (bowhead whale epidermis and blubber) were collected during subsistence hunts at Barrow, AK, USA (1997-1999) to measure concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs). The exposure of humans to OCs via bowhead whales and other biota [fish, ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)] as part of a subsistence diet was evaluated. Concentrations of OCs in bowhead whale tissues were correlated with lipid content (P
PubMed ID
15910787 View in PubMed
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A database for environmental contaminants in traditional foods in northern and Arctic Canada: development and applications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75436
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1998 Feb-Mar;15(2):127-34
Publication Type
Article
Author
H M Chan
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1998 Feb-Mar;15(2):127-34
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Chlordan - analysis
Databases, Factual
Environmental Pollutants
Fishes
Food Contamination
Meat - analysis
Mercury - analysis
Plants - chemistry
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
The potential health effects of environmental contaminants in traditional food has become a concern among northern communities because of the presence of environmental contaminants in the Arctic ecosystem. Exposure assessments are needed but they require comprehensive dietary information and contaminant data. Over the last 10 years, there has been considerable effort to monitor the level of contaminants in fish and wildlife collected from different regions in northern and Arctic Canada. The development of a database and its application for dietary contaminant exposure assessment are described. We conducted an extensive literature review on levels of environmental contaminants in northern and Arctic Canada. The ranges of levels of four contaminants of major concern (chlordane, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene) in 81 species of marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, birds, fish and plants are summarized. These data represent 69% of the 117 species of fish, wildlife and plants mentioned in our dietary interviews conducted in the northern communities. A significant percentage of the foods had contaminant levels exceeding the guidelines used by Health Canada for market food consumed by the 'southern' populations. Mathematic modelling of the distributions of the data showed that contaminant levels in most food groups are log-normally distributed and have a typical coefficient of variation of about 100%. Examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the data for contaminant exposure assessment. Average contaminant exposure levels estimated using the database for two communities are comparable to those obtained previously using community specific data. With the current knowledge of environmental contaminant levels in the northern traditional food system, it may be feasible to conduct preliminary risk assessment of dietary exposure of environmental contaminants when some diet information for a community is available. Further sampling and analysis may be needed only for confirmation purposes.
PubMed ID
9602917 View in PubMed
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Decreased survival in pancreatic cancer patients with high concentrations of organochlorines in adipose tissue.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87645
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;61(10):659-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Hardell Lennart
Carlberg Michael
Hardell Karin
Björnfoth Helen
Wickbom Gunnar
Ionescu Mircea
van Bavel Bert
Lindström Gunilla
Author Affiliation
Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro, Sweden. lennart.hardell@orebroll.se
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;61(10):659-64
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry - metabolism
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chlordan - analysis
Confidence Intervals
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis
Female
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - analysis - metabolism
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis - metabolism
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Pancreatic Neoplasms - metabolism - mortality
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Survival
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We analysed adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 21 cases with exocrine pancreatic cancer. The comparison group consisted of 59 subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sum of chlordanes and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were found in the cases. For 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) no significant difference was seen. For PCBs no odds ratio (OR) could be calculated since all cases had concentration>median in controls used as a cut-off. HCB yielded OR=53.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.64-605 and sum of chlordanes OR=18.4, 95% CI=2.71-124 whereas OR was not significantly increased for p,p'-DDE or PBDEs. Body mass index (BMI) at the time of tissue sampling was significantly lower for the cases. This might have influenced the results. Using BMI one year previously or decreasing the concentrations of POPs with the same percentage as weight loss among the cases did not change the results. Survival of the cases was shorter in the group with the concentration of POPs>median among cases, significantly so for the sum of PCBs (147 vs. 294 days), p,p'-DDE (134 vs. 302 days), and sum of chlordanes (142 vs. 294 days) in the high and low group, respectively. The results were based on a low number of cases and should be interpreted with caution.
PubMed ID
17560068 View in PubMed
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Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: relationships with feeding ecology and body condition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80731
Source
Environ Pollut. 2007 Mar;146(1):128-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Fuglei E.
Bustnes J O
Hop H.
Mørk T.
Björnfoth H.
van Bavel B.
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Polar Institute, The Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway. eva.fuglei@npolar.no
Source
Environ Pollut. 2007 Mar;146(1):128-38
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Animals
Biological Markers - analysis
Biotransformation
Body constitution
Chlordan - analysis
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis
Ecology
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food chain
Foxes - metabolism - physiology
Hexachlorobenzene - analysis
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated - analysis
Muscles - chemistry
Nitrogen Isotopes - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seasons
Svalbard
Abstract
Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43
PubMed ID
16963168 View in PubMed
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Environment and contaminants in traditional food systems of northern indigenous peoples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197559
Source
Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:595-626
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
H V Kuhnlein
H M Chan
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE) and School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X3V9, Canada. Kuhnlein@macdonald.mcgill.ca
Source
Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:595-626
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chlordan - analysis
Diet - adverse effects
Environment
Ethnic Groups
Europe - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Humans
Metals, Heavy - analysis
North America - epidemiology
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Radioisotopes - analysis
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Traditional food resources of indigenous peoples are now recognized as containing a variety of environmental contaminants which reach food species through local or long-range transport avenues. In this chapter we review the published reports of contaminants contained in traditional food in northern North America and Europe as organochlorines, heavy metals, and radionuclides. Usually, multiple contaminants are contained in the same food species. Measurement of dietary exposure to these environmental contaminants is reviewed, as are major issues of risk assessment, evaluation, and management. The dilemma faced by indigenous peoples in weighing the multiple nutritional and socioeconomic benefits of traditional food use against risk of contaminants in culturally important food resources is described.
PubMed ID
10940347 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the population distribution of dietary contaminant exposure in an Arctic population using Monte Carlo statistics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4874
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
H M Chan
P R Berti
O. Receveur
H V Kuhnlein
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis
Demography
Diet
Female
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Insecticides - analysis
Inuits
Male
Meat - analysis
Mercury - analysis
Monte Carlo Method
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
Organochlorines and heavy metals have bioaccumulated in Arctic wildlife, which is an important food source for the Inuit. In this study, we have developed a statistical model to describe the population distribution of contaminant exposure and the usual intake of the high-end contaminant consumers. Monte Carlo methods are used to account for variations due to seasonal dietary pattern and contaminant concentrations. Distribution of the dietary intake of the contaminants of most concern-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and toxaphenes-are described. Over 50% of the residents had dietary exposure levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake or provisional tolerable daily intake for Hg, toxaphene, and chlordane (83, 91, and 71% for men and 73, 85, and 56% for women, respectively). The high-end consumers (i.e. the 95th centile) have intake levels 6 times higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Hg, and over 20 times the tolerable daily intake of chlordane and toxaphene. Assessment of health risks of the relative high contaminant exposure in this community must also consider the nutritional, economical, cultural, and social importance of these traditional foods. A comprehensive risk management scheme has yet to be developed.
PubMed ID
9171993 View in PubMed
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Legacy and new halogenated persistent organic pollutants in polar bears from a contamination hotspot in the Arctic, Hudson Bay Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294456
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jan 01; 610-611:121-136
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-01-2018
Author
R J Letcher
A D Morris
M Dyck
E Sverko
E J Reiner
D A D Blair
S G Chu
L Shen
Author Affiliation
Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Electronic address: robert.letcher@canada.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jan 01; 610-611:121-136
Date
Jan-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Animals
Arctic Regions
Bays
Canada
Chlordan - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Liver - chemistry
Male
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Ursidae
Abstract
A large and complex suite of 295 legacy and new halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in fat or liver tissue samples of polar bears collected in 2013-2014 from Southern (SHB) and Western (WHB) subpopulations of the Canadian Arctic contaminants hotspot of Hudson Bay. A total of 210 POPs were detected and/or quantifiable with some frequency in all fat or liver samples. POP profile and concentration differences were investigated both within (e.g. age and sex) and between the two subpopulations. Two time-point comparisons were made relative to POPs reported for Hudson Bay polar bears harvested in 2007-2008. SPolychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations at both time points were the most concentrated of the POP groups, and were spatially uniform with no detectable influence of sex or age, as were concentrations of the dominant congener CB153. SChlordanes (SCHLs, 74-79% oxychlordane) and the Sperfluoroalkyl substances (SPFASs, ˜60% perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) had the second greatest POP group concentrations in SHB and WHB respectively, with SPFASs and SCHLs being significantly influenced by age and/or sex. SCHLs were spatially uniform but SPFASs were greater in the SHB bears, as were e.g. some flame retardants, due to e.g. local contamination and/or changes in bear behavior and diet. Endosulfans and hexabromocyclododecane were detectable in samples from 2007-2008 but not from 2013-2014, which is consistent with their global POP regulations. SPolychlorinated naphthalenes (SPCNs) were consistently detected at relatively high concentrations compared to other arctic wildlife, however these concentrations were low relative to legacy POPs. SShort-chain chlorinated paraffins (SSCCPs) were major contributors to the overall POPs burden with concentrations comparable to other legacy POPs, though there was no significant difference between or within subpopulations for PCNs or SCCPs. Except for octachlorostyrene, POPs concentrations were generally lower in female and male bears from SHB in 2013-2014 relative to 2007-2008, however those of WHB males were greater over the same timeframe for almost all POPs.
PubMed ID
28803190 View in PubMed
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Organochlorine contaminant levels in Eskimo harvested bowhead whales of arctic Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200213
Source
J Wildl Dis. 1999 Oct;35(4):741-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
T M O'Hara
M M Krahn
D. Boyd
P R Becker
L M Philo
Author Affiliation
Department of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough, Barrow, Alaska 99723, USA. tohara@co.north-slope.ak.us
Source
J Wildl Dis. 1999 Oct;35(4):741-52
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Alaska
Animals
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis
Chromatography, Gel - veterinary
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - veterinary
DDT - analysis
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry - veterinary
Heptachlor Epoxide - analysis
Hexachlorobenzene - analysis
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Insecticides - analysis
Inuits
Lindane - analysis
Liver - chemistry
Male
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Whales - metabolism
Abstract
Organochlorine (OC) levels in liver and blubber of 20 bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) collected during the Eskimo subsistence harvest at Barrow (Alaska, USA) in 1992 and 1993 are presented. Liver sum DDT (lipid weight) was significantly greater in male whales than in females. Most of the organochlorines measured were at higher levels in longer (older) than in shorter (younger) males. For female bowhead whales, hexachlorobenzene and lipid levels decreased and other OC levels did not change significantly with increasing length. Most organochlorine contaminants have low concentrations in tissues of the bowhead whale compared to concentrations in tissues of other cetaceans, especially Odontocetes. Based on allowable daily intakes (ADI) levels established by the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) "safe" levels of blubber to consume were calculated. Chlordane levels in bowhead whale blubber results in the most restrictive consumption amount (50 g blubber/day). We expect no adverse effects related to these organochlorine contaminants to occur in bowhead whales or in consumers of their tissues. However, investigation of low level chronic exposure effects and a more rigorous assessment of histopathology, biomarkers, and immune status in the bowhead whale would be required to conclude "no effect" with more certainty.
PubMed ID
10574534 View in PubMed
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Organochlorine residues in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere--a consideration of the composition of organochlorine residues in the blubber of marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6841
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):29-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-16-1996
Author
W. Vetter
B. Luckas
G. Heidemann
K. Skírnisson
Author Affiliation
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität-Jena, Institut für Ernährung und Umwelt, Germany.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):29-39
Date
Jul-16-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Aging
Animals
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis - metabolism
Comparative Study
DDT - analysis - metabolism
Dolphins - metabolism
Female
Germany
Iceland
Insecticides - analysis - metabolism
Lindane - analysis - metabolism
Male
Mass Fragmentography
North Sea
Pesticide Residues - analysis - metabolism
Poisoning - mortality
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Seals, Earless - metabolism
Sex Factors
Species Specificity
Stereoisomerism
Toxaphene - analysis - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Levels of organochlorines (PCBs, sigma DDT, lindane and its isomers, HCB, chlordane, and toxaphene) were determined in blubber of marine mammals from the northern hemisphere. Differences in both levels and ratios of organochlorine compounds were detected in different species of marine mammals living in the same region, e.g. blubber of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) accumulated significantly lower levels of lindane, HCB, toxaphene, and DDT and its metabolites than harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Compared to such elementary differences in the organochlorine pattern in different marine mammals, the influence of age and sex on the results was only minimal. Varying ratios of contaminants in individual harbour porpoises were explained by migration. Constant PCB/DDT ratios were measured in harbour seals. Due to the sedentariness of harbour seals, even local sources of contaminants could be recognized. Careful evaluation of the organochlorine levels and ratios in marine mammals made it possible to monitor the transport of PCBs from the European continent to European Arctic regions.
PubMed ID
8685708 View in PubMed
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Spatial and temporal distribution of chiral pesticides in Calanus spp. from three Arctic fjords.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257355
Source
Environ Pollut. 2014 Sep;192:154-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Pernilla Carlsson
Nicholas A Warner
Ingeborg G Hallanger
Dorte Herzke
Roland Kallenborn
Author Affiliation
University Centre in Svalbard, P.O. Box 156, NO-9171 Longyearbyen, Norway; University of Tromsø, Hansine Hansens veg 14, NO-9007 Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2014 Sep;192:154-61
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis
Copepoda - chemistry - metabolism
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Estuaries
Pesticides - analysis
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Svalbard
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zooplankton - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
Concentration and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of chiral chlorinated pesticides (a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH), trans-, cis- and oxychlordane) were determined in Arctic zooplankton, mainly Calanus spp. collected in the period 2007-11 from Svalbard fjords and open pack-ice. The temporal and spatial enantiomer distribution varied considerably for all species and chiral pesticides investigated. An overall enantiomeric excess of (+)-oxychlordane (EF 0.53-0.86) were observed. Cis-chlordane was close to racemic (EF 0.46-0.55), while EF for trans-chlordane varied between 0.29 and 0.55, and between 0.38 and 0.59 for a-HCH. The biodegradation potential for trans-chlordane was higher compared to cis-chlordane. The comprehensive statistical evaluation of the data set revealed that the EF distribution of a-HCH was affected by ice cover to a higher extent compared to cis-chlordane. Potential impact from benthic processes on EFs in zooplankton is an interesting feature and should be further investigated. Enantiomeric selective analyses may be a suitable tool for investigations of climate change related influences on Arctic ecosystems.
PubMed ID
24951967 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.