In contrast to the other Nordic countries Sweden has long had a favourable position as regards meningococcal disease. In the last 10 year period the annual incidence has been only about one case per 100,000 inhabitants. The treatment once the cause is confirmed is conventional and no different from that in the other Nordic countries but varies somewhat in the event of unknown etiology. Cortisone therapy also seems to be more frequent in treatment of meningitis. Two strategies for antibiotic prophylaxis are used in Sweden.
Fucidic acid viscous eye drops 1% given twice daily was compared with chloramphenicol eye drops 0.5% given 6 times daily in patients with acute conjunctivitis. Patients were recruited from 38 general practitioners in Norway. The mean duration of treatment was 6.6 days for Fucidic acid, 6.2 days for chloramphenicol. There was no major differences between the two groups in the bacteriological findings, and there was no significant difference in response to treatment. The use of fusidic acid in a carbomer vehicle as in Fucithalmic, has proved to give a long-lasting antibiotic concentration in the tear fluid, which allows the preferable twice daily application.
Application of 1% of chloramphenicol (gel and cream) for local treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infection has been studied in experiment. In vivo, both medical forms show pronounced therapeutic effect, they promote elimination of P. aeruginosa from wounds and decrease inflammation. In noninfected thermal trauma in laboratory animals application of gel and cream of chloramphenicol reduces transition from the phase of inflammation to the phase of reparation by 3-8 days and prevents infection of the burn wound by conditionally pathogenic microflora.
E. coli strains isolated from 5-day-old and 30-day-old healthy calves were tested for antibiotic resistance and H-factor mediated antibiotic resistance. An average of 1.6 antibiotic-resistant strains and 1.1 strains with transferable antibiotic resistance were isolated from each of the investigated calves. In comparison with the 30-day-old calves, the 5-day-old calves had significantly more strains with transferable antibiotic resistance (95.8 percent as against 63.4 percent). The R+ strains isolated from the younger calves transferred significantly more en bloc (43.5 percent as against 10.0 percent) and double plus multiple resistance (5292 percent as against 24.4 percent) than did those isolated from the older calves. The most common resistance was to sulphonamide and tetracycline and the most common transferred resistance was to sulphonamide.