Chromosomal polymorphism has been investigated in 7 natural populations from West Europe, West Siberia and Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The pool of polytene chromosome banding sequences of this species includes 15 banding sequences. The chromosomal polymorphism has been revealed in 5 of chromosomal arms. The most polymorphic is the arm B, there are 4 banding sequences in it. There are 3 banding sequences in the arm A. The arms D, E and G have 2 banding sequences. No chromosome rearrangements have been found in the arms C and F. The populations of Chironomus cingulatus differ clearly in the number and frequencies of banding sequences. This is evidence of that different gene sequences are adaptive in different populations.
Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.
Cladotanytarsus saetheri, sp. nov., a widely distributed species (Fennoscandia; Russia: Far East; Canada: Manitoba; USA: Colorado, Michigan, South Carolina, Wisconsin) is described and compared with C. gedanicus Gilka, 2001 on the basis of new records (Fennoscandia; Canada: Manitoba, Nunavut; USA: Colorado, New Mexico). Intraspecific morphological variability of adult males is presented in order to delimit the two previously misidentified species.
In order to compare the abilities of arctic and temperate fish to accumulate PCBs we conduct a metabolic analysis to determine how process rates in a mathematical fish contaminant model change with temperature. We evaluate the model by applying the original and adapted models to estimate PCB concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Trout Lake, Ontario, Canada, and in arctic char (Salvelinus alphinus) in Lake Øyangen, in the Norwegian high arctic. Modeled concentrations are, for the most part, within 50% of mean measured values and are comparable to the error associated with the fish data. In order to evaluate differences in fish bioaccumulation processes, the model is applied to hypothetical arctic and temperate systems, assuming the same contaminant input values in water and diet. The model predicts that temperate salmonids are able to biomagnify PCBs 6-60% more than arctic salmonids. For all congeners, the lower BMF(MAX) of arctic fish contribute to their lower concentrations. For congeners with log K(ow) 7.0. These processes are controlled by the influence of lipid in the fish and their diet as well as the dependence of growth on temperature. We suggest that fish models originally calibrated for temperate systems may be directly applied to arctic lakes after accounting for the lipid content of the fish and their diet as well as water temperature.
The paper describes the spatial contamination of the River Kymijoki, South-Eastern Finland, and the coastal region of the Gulf of Finland with PCDD/Fs and mercury. The findings of ecotoxicologial and human health studies are also reported, including environmental and human risk assessments. Sediments from the River Kymijoki, draining into the Gulf of Finland, have been heavily polluted by the pulp and paper industry and by chemical industries. A wood preservative, known as Ky-5, was manufactured in the upper reaches of the river between 1940 and 1984 causing severe pollution of river sediments with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). Moreover, the sediments have been polluted with mercury (Hg) from chlor-alkali production and the use of Hg as a slimicide in pulp and paper manufacturing.
An extensive sediment survey was conducted as well as sediment transport modeling, toxicity screening of sediment invertebrates, and a survey of contaminant bioaccumulation in invertebrates and fish. Studies on human exposure to PCDD/Fs and the possible effects on hypermineralization of teeth as well as an epidemiological study to reveal increased cancer risk were also conducted. An assessment of the ecological and human health risks with a null hypothesis (no remediation) was undertaken.
The sediment survey revealed severe contamination of river and coastal sediments with PCDD/Fs and Hg. The total volume of contaminated sediments was estimated to reach 5x10(6) m3 and hot spots with extremely high concentrations (max 292,000 ng g(-1) or 1,060 ng I-TEQ g(-1) d.w.) were located immediately downstream from the pollution source (approximately 90,000 m3). Sediment contamination was accompanied by changes in benthic assemblages, but direct effects were masked by many factors. The fish showed only slightly elevated PCDD/F levels in muscle, but orders of magnitude higher in the liver compared with reference freshwater sites and the Baltic Sea. The concentrations in human fat did not reveal high human exposure in the Kymijoki area in general and was lower than in sea fishermen. The relative risk for total cancer among farmers was marginally higher (RR=1.13) among those living close to the river, compared with farmers living further away, and the possibility of increased cancer risk cannot be ruled out. A conservative risk assessment revealed that the present probability of exceeding the WHO upper exposure limit of 4 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) d(-1) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was 6%. The probability of exceeding the WHO limit value of 0.23 mug kg(-1) d(-1) for methyl mercury was estimated to be notably higher at 62%. Based on these studies and the estimated risks connected with different remediation techniques a general remediation plan with cost benefit analysis was generated for several sub-regions in the river. Dredging, on-site treatment, and a close disposal of the most contaminated sediments (90,000 m3) was suggested as the first phase of the remediation. The decision regarding the start of remediation will be made during autumn 2008.
The sediments in the River Kymijoki are heavily polluted with PCDD/Fs and mercury from earlier chlorophenol, chlor-alkali, and pulp and paper manufacturing. A continuous transport of contaminants is taking place to the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. The highly increased PCDD/F and Hg levels in river sediments pose an ecotoxicological risk to benthic fauna, to fish-eating predators and probably to human health. The risks posed by mercury exceed those from PCDD/Fs and need to be evaluated for (former) chlor-alkali sites and other mercury releasing industries as one basis for remediation decision making.
The studies form the basis of a risk management strategy and a plan for possible remediation of contaminated sediments currently under consideration in the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre. It is recommended that a detailed restoration plan for the most seriously contaminated areas should be undertaken. Based on current knowledge, the restoration of the whole river is not feasible, considering the current risk caused by the contaminated sediment in the river and the costs of an extensive restoration project. The experiences gained in the present case should be utilized in the evaluation of PCDD/F- and mercury-contaminated sites in other countries. The case demonstrates that the historic reservoirs are of contemporary relevance and should be addressed, e.g., in the national implementation plans of the Stockholm Convention.
The male and female adult and larva of Clunio balticus Heimbach, 1978 are diagnosed and described based on reared material, which was collected in the marine littoral zone along the coast of Bergen (Norway). Male and female adults and larvae of C. balticus can be easily distinguished from other known European Clunio species on the basis of some atypical features found in the male and female adults and fourth instar larvae. The biological cycle (reproduction and emergence) of C. balticus is a slight semilunar-periodic synchronization on days near the high tides. C. balticus is a local biogeographic representative of the northern Atlantic coast, which includes the eastern and western seashores. Remarks on related known Clunio species from Europe with comments on the ecology and geographical distribution of C. balticus are given.
Chironomid flies (non-biting midges) are among the most abundant and diverse animals in Arctic regions, but detailed analyses of species distributions and biogeographical patterns are hampered by challenging taxonomy and reliance on morphology for species-level identification. Here we take advantage of available DNA barcode data of Arctic Chironomidae in BOLD to analyse similarities in species distributions across a northern Nearctic - West Palearctic gradient. Using more than 260?000 barcodes representing 4666 BINs (Barcode Index Numbers) and 826 named species (some with interim names) from a combination of public and novel data, we show that the Greenland chironomid fauna shows affinities to both the Nearctic and the West Palearctic regions. While raw taxon counts indicate a strong Greenland - North American affinity, comparisons using Chao's dissimilarity metric support a slightly higher similarity between Greenland and West Palearctic chironomid communities. Results were relatively consistent across different definitions of species taxonomic units, including morphologically determined species, BINs, and superBINs based on a ~4.5% threshold. While most taxa found in Greenland are shared with at least one other region, reflecting circum-Arctic dispersal, our results also reveal that Greenland harbours a small endemic biodiversity. Our exploratory study showcases how DNA barcoding efforts using standardized gene regions contribute to an understanding of broad-scale patterns in biogeography by enabling joint analysis of public DNA sequence data derived from diverse prior studies.
It has been shown, less concentrations of p-chlormercuribenzoate (1 and 2.5 mM) increased Ca2+ content in gland tissue and thereby protein secretion level that may occurred mainly by suppression Ca(2+)-pump or/and stimulation of Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchange (both in cell plasma membrane) through modulation of SH-groups which form part of their molecules. Higher PCMB concentrations markedly decreased Ca2+ content in gland tissue as well as protein secretion. Effects of PCMB (5 and 10 mM), depending on the direction of Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchange functioning (Ca(2+)-efflux or Ca(2+)-influx), were evoked or presumably by suppression of endoplasma reticulum Ca(2+)-pump (at conditions Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+)-efflux) or Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+)-influx into the cells that clearly confirmed when PCMB was added on the background of eosin Y (specific Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor). Possible role of potential dependent Ca(2+)-channnels in the mediating of PCMB effects is discussed. Introducing of dythiothreitol (DTT) increased Ca2+ content in glands and decreased secretion level obviously by protection of SH-groups of cell Ca(2+)-transporting systems and thereby diminished [Ca2+]i. Finally, we confirm important functional role of SH-groups in the regulation of Ca(2+)-homeostasis in secretory cells of exocrine glands.
The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone.
Using RAPD markers, polymorphism and differentiation of genomic DNA was examined in seven natural populations of Chironomus plumosus from Europe, Siberia, and North America. All these populations showed high polymorphism of genomic DNA. The Palearctic and Nearctic populations of this species were not statistically significantly different in the genomic DNA polymorphism level. The genetic distance (GD), which characterizes the extent of intraspecific differentiation of population genetic structure, was determined among the natural populations of C. plumosus. The genetic distance was on average 0.0245. It was demonstrated that genetic structures of the Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. plumosus was differentiated to a higher extent than in Palearctic. However, the genetic distances between the populations from different zoogeographical zones (0.313) did not exceed the level characteristic of the among-population differences, which do not disturb the species genetic integrity.