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Adherence to antiretroviral medications among persons who inject drugs in transitional, low and middle income countries: an international systematic review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268956
Source
AIDS Behav. 2015 Apr;19(4):575-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Jonathan Feelemyer
Don Des Jarlais
Kamyar Arasteh
Anneli Uusküla
Source
AIDS Behav. 2015 Apr;19(4):575-83
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Brazil - epidemiology
China - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Drug Users - statistics & numerical data
Estonia - epidemiology
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Humans
India - epidemiology
Indonesia - epidemiology
Medication Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Vietnam - epidemiology
Abstract
Adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV positive persons. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for HIV infection in transitional/low/middle income countries (TLMIC). We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting adherence to ART among persons with active injection drug use and/or histories of injection drug use in TLMIC. Meta-regression was performed to examine relationships between location, adherence measurements, and follow-up period. Fifteen studies were included from seven countries. Adherence levels ranged from 33 to 97 %; mean weighted adherence was 72 %. ART adherence was associated with different methods of measuring adherence and studies conducted in Eastern Europe and East Asia. The great heterogeneity observed precludes generalization to TLMIC as a whole. Given the critical importance of ART adherence more research is needed on ART adherence among PWID in TLMIC, including the use of standardized methods for reporting adherence to ART.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25331268 View in PubMed
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[A new zoonosis--investigation of Gardnerella vaginalis disease of fox. III. Epidemiological investigation]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4561
Source
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 1995 Jun;35(3):209-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
Z. Yan
X. Yan
F. Luan
C. Wang
Author Affiliation
Speciality Institute of CAAS, Jilin.
Source
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 1995 Jun;35(3):209-15
Date
Jun-1995
Language
Chinese
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Veterinary - epidemiology
Animals
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
China - epidemiology
English Abstract
Female
Foxes - microbiology
Gardnerella vaginalis - classification - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Vagina - microbiology
Zoonoses - epidemiology
Abstract
By epidemiological investigation to Gardnerella vaginalis disease of fox of civil main farms raising foxes, this disease was showed to be susceptible to silver foxes, arctic foxes, red foxes and color foxes, the disease was mostly transmitted by copulation, infected foxes played the leading role in epidemic of the disease. Investigative results of all farms raising foxes showed infection rate of fox groups was 0.9-21.9%, resulting in abortion rate was 1.5-14.7%, empty rate was 3.2-47.5%. Serious harm was revealed to the disease. By serology and causative agent isolation, we had proved that the disease was able to infect feeder and manager, it belongs to zoonosis. Racoondog. mink and canine infect with the disease besides fox. White mouse, big white rat, gopher, guinea pig and rabbit for laboratory are not infected with the disease.
PubMed ID
7631502 View in PubMed
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Antibodies to hepatitis C virus and hepatitis C virus RNA in Chinese blood donors determined by ELISA, recombinant immunoblot assay and polymerase chain reaction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature56839
Source
Chin Med J (Engl). 1993 Mar;106(3):171-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1993
Author
Y Y Zhang
L S Guo
L J Hao
B G Hansson
A. Widell
E. Nordenfelt
Author Affiliation
Clinical Immunology Research Unit, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan.
Source
Chin Med J (Engl). 1993 Mar;106(3):171-4
Date
Mar-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Donors
China - epidemiology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Hepacivirus - genetics
Hepatitis Antibodies - blood
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Humans
Immunoblotting
Polymerase Chain Reaction
RNA, Viral - blood
Abstract
Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were determined in Chinese blood donors from the city of Wuhan by ELISA screening tests and confirmatory recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). 281 and 222 sera were sampled under similar conditions in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The first collection of sera was sent to Sweden in lyophilized form, the second directly as fresh, unfrozen sera. A high proportion (22%) of the lyophilized sera were positive in the screening assay but only 6 (2.10%) were positive by RIBA with antibodies against both the C100-3 and 5-1-1 peptides. HCV RNA could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 3 of the 6 sera and in one reacting with C100-3 only. In the second material of fresh sera only 3 were positive in the screening anti-HCV ELISA, but none was RIBA or PCR positive. Thus, the overall prevalence of anti-HCV among the 503 Chinese blood donors as identified by RIBA was 1.2%, and that of HCV RNA by PCR was 0.8%. The confirmed antibody prevalence is higher than that reported in the western literature.
PubMed ID
7686839 View in PubMed
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Association between obesity and selected morbidities: a study of BRICS countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264317
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94433
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Ankita Shukla
Kaushalendra Kumar
Abhishek Singh
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94433
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
China - epidemiology
Female
Humans
India - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Obesity - complications - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
South Africa - epidemiology
Abstract
Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities.
We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007-10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression.
The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries.
Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24718033 View in PubMed
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Association of mean platelet volume with risk of stroke among 3134 individuals with history of cerebrovascular disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53397
Source
Stroke. 2004 Mar;35(3):622-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Philip Bath
Charles Algert
Neil Chapman
Bruce Neal
Author Affiliation
Division of Stroke Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK. philip.bath@nottingham.ac.uk
Source
Stroke. 2004 Mar;35(3):622-6
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Australia - epidemiology
Blood Platelets - cytology - drug effects - physiology
Cell Size - drug effects - physiology
Cerebrovascular Accident - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
China - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Ischemic Attack, Transient - epidemiology - physiopathology
Japan - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Multicenter Studies - statistics & numerical data
New Zealand - epidemiology
Perindopril - therapeutic use
Predictive value of tests
Randomized Controlled Trials - statistics & numerical data
Recurrence - prevention & control
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mean platelet volume (MPV) is positively associated with measures of platelet activity and may be a useful indicator of the risk of vascular events in a variety of patient groups. METHODS: The association of MPV with the risk of stroke was assessed in the Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS). All participants had a history of cerebrovascular disease at baseline, and analyses were adjusted for the effects of potential confounders. RESULTS: The study followed 3134 individuals for an average of 3.9 years (mean age, 65 years; 71% male; average MPV, 10.0 fL). Three hundred eighty-three individuals had 402 stroke events, and 160 had major coronary events. MPV was positively associated with the risk of stroke, with an 11% increased relative risk (95% CI, 3% to 19%) of stroke per femtoliter greater MPV. There was no clear association of MPV with the risk of major coronary events (9% decreased relative risk; 95% CI, -23% to 7%). Perindopril did not alter MPV. CONCLUSIONS: MPV is an independent predictor of the risk of stroke among individuals with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. The measurement of MPV may add useful prognostic information for clinicians managing patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease.
PubMed ID
14976328 View in PubMed
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Associations between active travel and weight, blood pressure and diabetes in six middle income countries: a cross-sectional study in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271537
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Anthony A Laverty
Raffaele Palladino
John Tayu Lee
Christopher Millett
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:65
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
China - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Ghana - epidemiology
Humans
India - epidemiology
Male
Mexico - epidemiology
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
South Africa - epidemiology
Transportation - methods
Travel - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
There is little published data on the potential health benefits of active travel in low and middle-income countries. This is despite increasing levels of adiposity being linked to increases in physical inactivity and non-communicable diseases. This study will examine: (1) socio-demographic correlates of using active travel (walking or cycling for transport) among older adults in six populous middle-income countries (2) whether use of active travel is associated with adiposity, systolic blood pressure and self-reported diabetes in these countries.
Data are from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) of China, India, Mexico, Ghana, Russia and South Africa with a total sample size of 40,477. Correlates of active travel (=150 min/week) were examined using logistic regression. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine health related outcomes according to three groups of active travel use per week.
46.4% of the sample undertook =150 min of active travel per week (range South Africa: 21.9% Ghana: 57.8%). In pooled analyses those in wealthier households were less likely to meet this level of active travel (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) 0.77, 95% Confidence Intervals 0.67; 0.88 wealthiest fifth vs. poorest). Older people and women were also less likely to use active travel for =150 min per week (ARR 0.71, 0.62; 0.80 those aged 70+ years vs. 18-29 years old, ARR 0.82, 0.74; 0.91 women vs. men). In pooled fully adjusted analyses, high use of active travel was associated with lower risk of overweight (ARR 0.71, 0.59; 0.86), high waist-to-hip ratio (ARR 0.71, 0.61; 0.84) and lower BMI (-0.54 kg/m(2), -0.98;- 0.11). Moderate (31-209 min/week) and high use (=210 min/week) of active travel was associated with lower waist circumference (-1.52 cm (-2.40; -0.65) and -2.16 cm (3.07; -1.26)), and lower systolic blood pressure (-1.63 mm/Hg (-3.19; -0.06) and -2.33 mm/Hg (-3.98; -0.69)).
In middle-income countries use of active travel for =150 min per week is more common in lower socio-economic groups and appears to confer similar health benefits to those identified in high-income settings. Efforts to increase active travel levels should be integral to strategies to maintain healthy weight and reduce disease burden in these settings.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25986001 View in PubMed
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Associations between the MDM2 promoter P1 polymorphism del1518 (rs3730485) and incidence of cancer of the breast, lung, colon and prostate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287716
Source
Oncotarget. 2016 May 10;7(19):28637-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-2016
Author
Liv B Gansmo
Lars Vatten
Pål Romundstad
Kristian Hveem
Bríd M Ryan
Curtis C Harris
Stian Knappskog
Per E Lønning
Source
Oncotarget. 2016 May 10;7(19):28637-46
Date
May-10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Americans - genetics
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
China - epidemiology
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - ethnology - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Norway - epidemiology
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Promoter Regions, Genetic - genetics
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 - genetics
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
The MDM2 promoter region contains several polymorphisms, some of which have been associated with MDM2 expression, cancer risk and age at cancer onset. del1518 (rs3730485) is an indel polymorphism residing in the MDM2 promoter P1 and is in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with the MDM2 promoter P2 polymorphism SNP309T>G (rs2279744). Cancer risk assessments of del1518 have previously been conducted in relatively small Chinese populations only. In this study we assessed the genotype distribution of del1518 among healthy Caucasians, African Americans and Chinese, and we estimated the Odds Ratios (OR) for incident cancer of the breast, colon, lung and prostate (n=7,081) as compared to controls (n=3,749) in a large Caucasian (Norwegian) cohort.We found the genotypes of the del1518 to vary significantly between healthy Caucasians, African-Americans and Chinese (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
27081698 View in PubMed
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Atopic Dermatitis: Racial and Ethnic Differences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290693
Source
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul; 35(3):395-402
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Adeline Mei-Yen Yong
Yong-Kwang Tay
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, National University Health System, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore.
Source
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul; 35(3):395-402
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Age Factors
China - epidemiology
Dermatitis, Atopic - diagnosis - ethnology - genetics - pathology
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Malaysia - epidemiology
Phenotype
Prevalence
Singapore - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide. There is wide variation in the prevalence of AD among different countries. Although the frequency of AD is increasing in developing countries, it seems to have stabilized in developed countries, affecting approximately 1 in 5 schoolchildren. Adult-onset AD is not uncommon and is significantly higher, affecting between 11% and 13% of adults in some countries, for example, Singapore, Malaysia, and Sweden. AD is thus associated with significant health care economic burden in all age groups.
PubMed ID
28577807 View in PubMed
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101 records – page 1 of 11.