Antisocial behaviour among adolescent suicide victims (44 males, 9 females) was investigated in a nationwide psychological autopsy study of suicides in Finland. The data were collected through interviews of the victims' relatives and attending health care personnel, and from official records. Antisocial behaviour was reported among 43% of the victims. Separation from parents, parental alcohol abuse and parental violence were common among male victims with antisocial behaviour. Their psychosocial adjustment was poor, and they had experienced severe stressors. Depressive disorders were common among all suicides, but male victims with antisocial behaviour had more often alcohol abuse and comorbid mental disorders compared with victims without antisocial behaviour. The results indicate a strong relatedness between adolescent suicide and antisocial behaviour. Recognition and treatment of manifest mental symptoms and evaluation of suicide risk among adolescents with antisocial behaviour and substance abuse is emphasized. Antisocial symptoms with relatively short duration and not severe enough to meet the criteria for actual antisocial disorders also need to be taken into account.
A 22 year old female-to-male half-Aboriginal transsexual had been exposed to gross neglect and violence, separation and inconsistent cultural supports during childhood. Her mother had also been convicted of homicide in a context of alcohol and violence. Transsexual identification, antisocial behaviours, self mutilation, substance abuse and unmet dependency needs were evident from childhood or early adolescence. The killing was a confrontational peer group stabbing in a brawl under influence of alcohol--the male mode of homicide. This is the first known case in world literature of a female-to-male transsexual guilty of homicide.
This study is based on interviews with 53 male alcoholics. Its purpose was to study the relationship between childhood conditions, history of alcohol and drug misuse and assaultive and suicidal behaviour. Fifty-seven per cent of the alcoholics reported a history of violent behaviour. Hidden violence, often towards women, was common. One-third of the violent patients had a history of attempted suicide compared to 17% in the non-violent group. The assaultive alcoholics also had a more violent childhood, a higher proportion of fathers with alcohol problems and had started drinking earlier in life. Drug addiction was much more common in this group too. We find support for our hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between violence in the parental home and assaultive and suicidal behaviour and drug misuse later in life. When violent and non-violent alcoholics are compared many of the same characteristics appear as when suicidal and non-suicidal and type 2 and type 1 alcoholics are compared. This study raises the question of adding attempted suicide as a characteristic of the type 2 alcoholic.
Childhood predictors of adulthood hostility was examined in a population-based sample of 1,004 children and their parents. Parents' Type A behavior, their life satisfaction, family's socioeconomic level, and maternal reports of children's Type A behavior were obtained for 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old participants. Hostility was self-evaluated by these participants 15 years later. Results revealed that childhood environment in terms of parental Type A behavior and life dissatisfaction as well as children's own Type A behavior predicted their adulthood hostility. The findings identified childhood environments that either promoted or protected against hostility. Results underline the need to consider the conjoint effects of various factors because the same characteristics play different roles in different contexts.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of minor children in families with a severely mentally ill member, these children's needs for support and the situation of the spouses were investigated as part of a multi-centre study of the quality of the mental health services in Sweden performed in 1986, 1991 and 1997. METHODS: The sample was drawn from relatives of compulsorily and voluntarily admitted inpatients to acute psychiatric wards. The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire, interviewing relatives about the burden of relatives, their needs for support and participation in care and items concerning the situation of the under-aged children in these families. RESULTS: The results over the years investigated showed the same proportion of patients admitted to hospital who were also parents to minor children and a decreasing proportion of patients who had the custody of their children. Female patients were more often a parent and also more often had the custody of the children. The majority of the children had needs for support caused by their parent's illness and these needs were met in half of the cases. The healthy spouses in families with minor children more often had to give up their own occupation and to a higher extent experienced own needs for care and support from psychiatric services compared to spouses without minor children. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports that there is an urgent need for the psychiatric services to initiate parental issues in programmes for treatment and rehabilitation to ensure that the specific needs of minor children are met.
To compare the prevalence rates of mental disorders among children of parents with bipolar disorder and of parents with no mental disorders.
Seventeen studies, meeting specific selection criteria, were included in the metaanalyses. Risks for mental disorders among children were estimated by aggregating raw data from the selected studies.
Results indicate that in comparison with children of parents with no mental disorders, children of parents with bipolar disorder are 2.7 times more likely to develop any mental disorder and 4.0 times more likely to develop an affective disorder. The metaanalyses indicate that during childhood and adolescence, the risks for any mental disorder and for affective disorders in children are consistently but moderately related to having a parent who suffers from bipolar disorder.
Risk factors that could account for the psychopathology observed in children of bipolar parents are explored.
This paper focuses on a series of adolescent suicides which occurred in a small rural community in Western Canada between December 1989 and June 1990. Risk factors for adolescent suicide and recent epidemiological data on cluster suicide are reviewed and discussed. The circumstances of the five adolescent suicides are then discussed, and the question of whether or not this was a cluster suicide is considered. This article supports the view that suicide is an abnormal response to stress or loss and emphasizes the role of genetic psychophysiological predisposition.
The actor-partner interdependence model was used to test whether one parent's depressive vulnerability (self-criticism and dependency) was associated with the same parent's own (an intraparental association) and the other parent's (a cross-parental association) ratings of their 5-year-old child's temperament (536 parents, 268 dyads). The more vulnerable the parents were, the more the children showed negative affectivity and lack of effortful control. Significant interactions with the parent's gender and between the spouses' depressive vulnerabilities were found, highlighting the fact that child outcomes are dependent on family processes. All associations were independent of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms. The influence of personality-based depressive traits on child temperamental outcomes and effective parenting is discussed with reference to between-dyad family dynamics.
Compared the degree of dysfunction in the family of origin of psychology graduate students to that of graduate students in the disciplines of business, education, engineering, and health sciences. Students were accessed through University of Alaska Anchorage graduate departments. Family background was assessed with the Index of Family Relations (IFR; Hudson, 1990a), the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI; Beavers, Hampson, & Hulgus, 1990), and relevant demographics obtained from a biographical questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences among the student groups; psychology graduate students demonstrated higher degrees of family dysfunction than students in other disciplines. Implications of these findings for psychology graduate training programs are discussed.
The aim was to assess risk factors during childhood and youth for alcohol dependence/abuse (ADA) in a population-based study of Swedish women. A total of 316 women were interviewed after stratified random sampling in the general population and a screening questionnaire. The interviews focused on social, psychological and behaviour characteristics as well as on early substance use patterns. Alcohol diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R and CIDI-SAM. Experiences of sexual abuse before the age of 13 years, a history of psychological or psychiatric problems, early deviant behaviour and an episode of alcohol intoxication before the age of 15 years were significantly associated with ADA in a logistic model. General indicators of low social class were not associated with increased risk of ADA in a multivariate analysis. Sexual abuse in childhood was the strongest predictor of ADA. This association has potential public health importance, and should be addressed in future studies on women and alcohol.