This study explored the possible links between family risk factors (i.e., parent gambling and parenting practices) and adolescent gambling. A community sample of 938 adolescents (496 females and 442 males) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA; K. C. Winters, R. Stinchfield, & J. Fulkerson, 1993b) along with a questionnaire assessing parenting practices. Both parents completed the SOGS (H. R. Lesieur & S. B. Blume, 1987). Results showed that adolescent gambling frequency was related to both parents' gambling frequency and problems. However, adolescent gambling problems were linked only to fathers' severity of gambling problems. Low levels of parental monitoring enhanced adolescents' risk of getting involved in gambling activities and developing related problems. A higher level of inadequate disciplinary practices was also related to greater gambling problems in youth. These links were significant after controlling for socioeconomic status, gender, and impulsivity-hyperactivity problems.
AIMS: In 1936 the Finnish Anti-Tuberculosis Association founded the first nursery, "Joulumerkkikoti", into which infants born into tuberculous families were admitted and given BCG vaccination to reduce the risk of tuberculosis. This prophylactic regimen was effective in reducing infant mortality and morbidity of tuberculosis. We investigated the mortality of these children later in childhood and adulthood. METHODS: The index cohort consisted of 3,020 subjects born between 1945 and 1965 in Finland and isolated from their family immediately after birth. The average separation time was 218 days. The subjects alive on 1 January 1971 were identified. For every index subject two reference subjects were chosen, the matching criteria being sex, year, and place of birth. Data on causes of deaths were obtained from the Finnish Cause of Death Registry by the end of 1998. RESULTS: The relative mortality rate (RR) was higher in the index cohort than in the reference cohort for all causes of death (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.7), and particularly for unnatural deaths: RR 1.5 (1.1-1.9) for men and RR 1.9 (1.0-3.7) for women. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality in the index subjects later in childhood and adulthood was somewhat elevated. This may be explained by a variety of risks experienced during pregnancy, delivery, and childhood. The fall in the socioeconomic status of the family of origin due to tuberculosis may partially explain the result. Another interpretation is that the very early separation from the mother had unfavourable effects on later psychological developments in some children.
Chercheure à l'Institut de recherche pour le développement social des jeunes (IRDS), Institut de recherche du Centre jeunesse de Montréal-Institut universitaire et au département de psychiatrie du Centre universitaire de santé McGill (CUSM).
An exploratory survey of 68 youth protection services' workers in Montréal, who followed 1,030 children reveals that 39 % of these children have at least one parent who suffer from mental health problems. Among these parents, 48 % of mothers and 30 % of fathers have a personality disorder, and for the majority, a borderline personality disorder. This mental health problem is preoccupying for youth protection workers because of its high prevalence, its impact on children and case workers and the difficulties brought forth by having to intervene in a context of authority and within an organization not adapted to the management of this mental health problem. Some intervention's guidelines to work with these parents are presented as well as some challenges and future perspectives.
The objective is to examine the factors associated with family functioning in families with children where a parent has cancer in comparison to families without cancer.
Eighty-five families including 85 cancer patients, 61 healthy spouses and 68 children between 11 and 17 years of age, and a control group of 59 families including 105 adults and 65 children were given a set of questionnaires including a background variable questionnaire, the Family Assessment Device, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Sense of Coherence (SOC). A statistical multilevel model allowing the use of data from several informants belonging to the same family was constructed for the analysis of associations between variables.
Maternal depression and SOC of family members were associated with family functioning; maternal depression impaired family functioning and family members' SOC improved it. No difference was found between the clinical group and the control group.
In clinical work with cancer families with children, maternal depression and SOC should be focused on.
The purpose of this report is to describe caregiving by teens for family members with Huntington disease (HD). Thirty-two teens in HD families in the United States and Canada participated in focus groups from 2002 to 2005 in a study to identify concerns and strategies to manage concerns. An unexpected finding was 24 (77%) described caregiving activities. Descriptive analysis of caregiving statements identified themes of Tasks and Responsibilities, Subjective Burden, Caregiving in Context of Personal Risk for HD, and Decisional Responsibility. Teens took an active part in nearly all aspects of care with the exception of contacting health care providers and attending doctors' appointments. Some described emotional distress, and many provided care knowing they had the potential to develop HD. Teens recognized the need for decisions but lacked the authority to make these decisions. Findings may be relevant for other teens who strive to meet caregiver and student roles and developmental tasks.
Given the continual rise of HIV infection in our communities and the improved life span for many who are HIV-positive, social workers in all fields of practice have clients whose lives have been touched by HIV/AIDS. This article reviews relevant literature and reports on the parenting needs that emerged in a Canadian study that examined the experiences of 105 mothers and fathers living with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the children in the study were not HIV-positive. Some themes related to parenting in the literature, and evident in this study, were chronic sorrow, stress and burden, normalization, stigma, secrecy, and disclosure. In the study parenting was found to be a source of joy and an additional challenge in an already complicated life. Important new themes were family life as precious time, focused parenting, the different effects of HIV/AIDS, the parenting preparation needs of fathers, and the efforts to parent affected and infected children differently. Parenting when living with HIV/AIDS requires attention from clinicians and researchers in a range of settings.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine change in internalizing symptoms from late childhood (age 10) into mid-adolescence (age 15) in a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. The roles of a child's sex, maternal depressive symptoms in late childhood, and their interactions were investigated.
The sample was derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms and children reported on their own internalizing symptoms at three time (T) points (T1: 1994/1995; T2: 1996/1997; T3: 1998/1999). Change in children's internalizing symptoms was investigated using multiple regression.
Girls increased and boys decreased in their internalizing symptoms from T1 to T3. The effect of maternal depressive symptoms at T1 was moderated by sex and remained significant after controlling for maternal depressive symptoms at T2 and T3, with more adverse effects in girls.
The internalizing symptoms of girls increased from childhood to adolescence, whereas those for boys decreased. Female children exposed to maternal depressive symptoms T1 continued to show negative effects 4 years later.
This study examined differences in children's behavior and expenditures for health and social services used when their parents with dysthymia did or did not respond to antidepressant therapy.
Children ages 4 to 16 years of consenting parents enrolled in a treatment trial for dysthymia who did and did not respond to treatment were compared at baseline and 24 months. The responder was a parent with at least a 40% reduction in his or her baseline depressive symptoms using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Children's behavior was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, and expenditures for health and social services use was measured in Canadian dollars using the Health and Social Service Utilization Questionnaire.
Children of parents with dysthymia who responded to treatment had significantly greater reductions in emotional symptoms at 2-year follow-up than children of nonresponders, along with an economically important (not statistically significant) reduction in expenditures for health and social services use.
Reductions in parental symptoms of dysthymia may be associated with reductions in childhood behavioral problems and in expenditures for the child's use of services.
The authors examined whether motor coordination difficulties assessed in childhood predict later adult schizophrenia spectrum outcomes.
A standardized childhood neurological examination was administered to a sample of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10-13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization for a nonpsychotic disorder (N=84); and children with no parental records of psychiatric hospitalization (N=66). Psychiatric outcomes of the offspring were assessed through psychiatric interviews in 1992 when participants were 31-33 years of age, as well as through a scan of national psychiatric registers completed in May 2007.
Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133).
Results from this study provide further support for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and underscore the potential role of cerebellar and/or basal ganglia abnormalities in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
The Helsinki High-Risk Study monitors women treated for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in Helsinki mental hospitals before 1975, their offspring, and controls.
To compare the development of high-risk and control group children, and investigate which factors predicted future psychiatric disorders.
We examined information from childhood and school health record cards of 159 high-risk and 99 control group offspring. Logistic regression was used to assess whether developmental abnormalities predicted later mental disorders.
Compared with controls, children in the high-risk group had more emotional symptoms before school age, attentional problems and social inhibition at school age, and neurological soft signs throughout. In this group pre-school social adjustment problems (OR=9.7, 95% CI 1.8-51.8) or severe neurological symptoms (Fisher's test, P=0.006) predicted future schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Social adjustment problems and emotional symptoms during school age predicted future non-psychotic psychiatric disorders.
Our study supports the validity of neurological, emotional, social and behavioural markers as vulnerability indicators of psychotic and other mental disorders, particularly among children genetically at high risk of psychosis.