The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the oral health status, treatment needs, and cost of treatment for Head Start children in Alaska. Twenty communities, representing five regions within the state, were selected for participation. The study consisted of three distinct parts: a caries status exam, a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a treatment needs examination. A total of 544 children between three and five years old were examined. The mean dmft and dmfs scores were 3.91 and 8.73, respectively. When stratified by race, the Alaska Native children had significantly higher mean dmft and dmfs scores. When stratified by community of residence, those children residing in the rural communities had higher rates of dental caries than the urban children. Forty-five percent of the total sample was in need of dental restorative treatment, excluding examinations, radiographs, and preventive services. The proportion of rural children needing care was much higher than the urban children (59% vs 27%). On average, each urban child needed treatment on 0.7 teeth, while each rural child needed treatment on 2.8 teeth. When all treatment factors including sedation and transportation costs are considered, the potential cost of treatment for the 1,475 children enrolled in the Alaska Head Start programs was $601,624.
Immunologic screening was used for examining children of five St. Petersburg regions (4155 subjects) and workers of two industrial enterprises (7700 subjects). Tuberculosis infection level in children living together with subjects of groups I, II, Va, Vb and VII dispensary record and tuberculin sensitivity in adults were determined. New risk groups of tuberculosis development have been suggested which include children from the families of subjects with residual changes of past respiratory tuberculosis with a high risk of its reactivation and adults having hyperergic tuberculin sensitivity. BCG revaccination postponement in adults aged 27-30 years is valid in conditions of low tuberculosis prevalence.
This paper provides a detailed analysis of the survival rates and health problems of a cohort of children born during a 5-yr period in part of the city of Ilorin, Nigera. The findings are linked to a demographic and environmental study which indicates that the study area was relatively stable in terms of family structure and population turnover. Most people work in the informal sector, in trading, small scale crafts and service industries. At the time the survey began, in 1979, the provision of piped water supplies to the area was unreliable and sanitation provisions rudimentary. Most of the people had little or no formal education and were very poor. The study indicated that health status had improved over the 5-yr period, compared to a baseline study conducted in 1979. Common causes of child mortality and morbidity included diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, and malaria. The infant mortality rate was 41.5/1000. The availability of clinic care at nominal cost, and the attendance of mothers at the clinic for checkups and immunization, resulted in a higher level of health for their children than otherwise would have been possible. Some problems of primary health care in the area are mentioned, in the light of Nigeria's current budgetary problems, and the utilization of existing strong social support networks to improve health care and environmental sanitation and water supply is suggested.