This study compares the aerobic fitness status of a sample of rural American and Russian children, and examines these findings in light of their out of school physical activity participation.
Ten and eleven year old (N = 415) children from both countries completed a 15 m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, and following the test, the children scoring beyond the upper limit of the healthy fitness zone were interviewed with regard to their out-of-school participation in physical activity.
The Russian students achieved significantly higher scores than American students (P
To study the relations between postnatal maternal morbidity, child morbidity and welfare interventions in families with prenatal alcohol or substance abuse.
A register-based longitudinal retrospective cohort study. The exposed cohort included 638 children born to 524 women followed-up during pregnancy for alcohol or substance abuse 1992-2001. Non-exposed children (n = 1914) born to control women were matched for maternal age, parity, number of foetuses, month of birth and delivery hospital of the index child. Perinatal and follow-up data of both cohorts were collected from national registers until 2007.
Postnatal maternal abuse-related healthcare utilization and use of medication were associated with child out-of-home care. Significant differences were in particular observed in the categories of maternal mental and behavioural disorders caused by psychoactive substance use as well as injury and poisoning. Maternal inpatient care for mental and behavioural disorders peaked at the time of child out-of-home care. Maternal abuse-related healthcare utilization was associated with early child healthcare utilization and use of medication for mental and behavioural disorders. These associations were largely explained by the association with child out-of-home care.
Postnatal maternal abuse-related morbidity is associated with significant early child morbidity, use of medication and timing of out-of-home care.
Knowledge about social determinants of health has influenced global health strategies, including early childhood interventions. Some psychosocial circumstances - such as poverty, parental mental health problems, abuse and partner violence - increase the risk of child maltreatment and neglect. Healthcare professionals' awareness of psychosocial issues is of special interest, since they both have the possibility and the obligation to identify vulnerable children.
Child Health Services health records of 100 children in Malmö, Sweden, who had been placed in, or were to be placed in family foster care, were compared with health records of a matched comparison group of 100 children who were not placed in care. A mixed-method approach integrating quantitative and qualitative analysis was applied.
The documentation about the foster care group was more voluminous than for the comparison group. The content was problem-oriented and dominated by severe parental health and social problems, while the child's own experiences were neglected. The professionals documented interaction with healthcare and social functions, but very few reports to the Social Services were noted. For both groups, notes about social structures were almost absent.
Child Health Service professionals facing vulnerable children document parental health issues and interaction with healthcare, but they fail to document living conditions thereby making social structures invisible in the health records. The child perspective is insufficiently integrated in the documentation and serious child protection needs remain unmet, if professionals avoid reporting to Social Services.
Occurrences of childhood lead poisoning resulting from exposure to residential sources of lead is an underresearched area in Canada. Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research substantiates this claim by grouping Canadian research on this health topic into the model's 4 domains: physiological, vulnerability, epistemological, and health protection. This process is useful not only for identifying research gaps within the Canadian context but also in setting the groundwork for a future critical analysis to illuminate the sociopolitical and economic influences that shape healthcare knowledge, and ultimately, influence how healthcare providers and policy makers produce and use this information.
BACKGROUND: Numerous child health status measures have been developed, ranging from assessments of physical and mental health to activity continuums. Our objective was to report the regional distribution of physical morbidity among children in Manitoba. METHODS: Using Manitoba's population-based prescription and health care data for 1998/99, the prevalence of children with lower respiratory tract infections, four chronic conditions (asthma, cardiovascular disease, Type 1 diabetes mellitus and seizure disorders) and physical disabilities, including spina bifida and cerebral palsy, was determined for 12 Regional Health Authorities and 12 Winnipeg Community Areas, ranked by a measure of population healthiness, the premature mortality rate (PMR). Prescription rates were also reported by neighbourhood income quintile, derived from census data. RESULTS: Hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infection was highest in infants (6%) and increased with successive decreases in neighbourhood income or in the population healthiness of a region. On the basis of a physician diagnosis or prescription drug for asthma, 10% of school-age children had asthma. Asthma treatment rates in northern Manitoba were substantially lower than in Winnipeg. Treatment rates for cardiovascular conditions, Type I diabetes and seizure disorders approached 1% in adolescents and there were no regional differences in the distribution of these conditions. The prevalence of physical disability was highest in northern Manitoba. CONCLUSION: A minority of Manitoba children suffer from chronic and serious acute health problems in childhood, but the burden of illness is not evenly distributed among children.
In a cross-sectional study of 5951 Russian 8-12-year-old schoolchildren, risks of current asthma, wheezing, and allergy were related to recent renovation and the installation of materials with potential chemical emissions. New linoleum flooring, synthetic carpeting, particleboard, wall coverings, and furniture and recent painting were determinants of 1 or several of these 3 health outcomes. These findings warrant further attention to the type of materials used in interior design.
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