A number of studies have shown that dieting and body dissatisfaction are highly frequent among adolescents. We here describe the relationship between dieting and body dissatisfaction in 4,952 children selected from the 11, 13 and 15 year age cohorts of the Norwegian national sample in the multinational WHO survey "Health Behavior in School Children". Body dissatisfaction was defined as the subjective experience of being a bit or much too fat and, using this definition, about 20% of the boys reported body dissatisfaction and 7% that they were on a diet. About 37% of the girls reported body dissatisfaction and 15% that they were on a diet. Within the age cohorts, respectively 22%, 30% and 32% reported body dissatisfaction, whereas about 40% overall indicated no body dissatisfaction. Being on a diet was reported by 8% of the 11-year olds, and subsequently increased to 10% (13 years) and 14% (15 years). Multiple regression analysis showed that body dissatisfaction explained 33% of the variance in dieting behaviour, and that the overall effect of gender and age was small. Dieting and body dissatisfaction should therefore be recognised as being equally important among boys, and be counteracted within the framework of a health promotion strategy aimed at the general adolescent population.
BACKGROUND: The association between childhood family structure and sociodemographic characteristics and personality disorders (PDs) in a general population sample was studied. METHODS: This study is a substudy of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Project with 1588 young adult subjects. The case-finding methods according to the DSM-III-R criteria for PDs were: (1) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) for 321 cases who participated in a 2-phase field study, (2) Finnish Hospital Discharge Register data, and (3) analysis of the patient records in public outpatient care in 1982-1997. Statistical analyses were performed on the association between PDs and family background factors. RESULTS: Altogether 110 (7.0%) of the subjects had at least one probable or definite PD. After adjusting for confounders (gender, parental social class and parental psychiatric disorder) the results indicated that single-parent family type in childhood was associated with cluster B PDs in adulthood. Being an only child in childhood was associated with cluster A PDs. No special childhood risk factors were found for cluster C PDs. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that single-parent family type at birth and being an only child in the 1960s are associated with PD in adulthood. Further studies are needed to explore the psychosocial aspects of family environment which may nowadays promote vulnerability to PDs in adulthood.
To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents.
Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated.
Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems.
The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.
Department of Psychiatry, Rivière-des-Prairies Hospital, Fernand-Seguin Research Center, Université de Montréal, Montreal, 7070 Perras Boulevard, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6--14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was twofold. Using data from the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey, it sought: (1) to identify psychosocial correlates associated with depressive disorder in two age-groups (6--11 and 12-14 years) according to informant (child/adolescent, parent); and (2) to interpret the relative importance of correlates by ranking variables according to strength and consistency of association across age-groups. Logistic regression models show correlates to be inconsistent across informants. The ranking of correlates indicates a major contribution of only-child status/ordinal position, parent's major depressive disorder, stressful family events, and parent-child relationship, thereby supporting the hypothesis of the relevance of family context in the development of depression.
Mothers and fathers of 54 term infants and 49 preterm infants were observed individually interacting with their infant in the home during a structured task (Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale) when the child was 3 and 12 months old. Parents of preterm infants had lower interaction scores than parents of term infants. Differences between the groups were not explained by differences in the behavior of the infant, in levels of stress (measured by the Parenting Stress Index), in marital support (measured by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale), or in level of involvement with their child. Fathers of both term and preterm infants had lower interaction scores than mothers. Parents' interaction scores decreased over time, while the responsiveness and clarity of cues of the infants increased over time. The results are discussed in relationship to other research on prematurity stereotyping and the vulnerable child syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: Serious defects in social skills acquired during childhood may be associated with aggressive behavior in later life. The authors studied whether being an only child was associated with criminality in adulthood and, secondly, if parental factors increased the putative risk. METHOD: The authors used an unselected, prospectively collected large birth cohort. Data on crimes were linked with being an only child as well as with perinatal risk and maternal and paternal psychological risk factors among male subjects. RESULTS: The risk for violent crimes later in life was elevated among the only children. If perinatal or parental risks were combined with being an only child, the odds ratios for violent offending increased four-fold to eight-fold. A corresponding risk increase between being an only child and nonviolent offending was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that growing up as an only child is associated with violent criminality among male subjects.
Surveys conducted in Europe and North America over the last 30 years have shown that children and adolescents were particularly worried about the possibilities of nuclear war and unemployment. A study carried out in Montreal among young people of primary or high school level assessed their concerns about the future and inquired about what their priorities would be if they were political leaders. One hundred and twenty young people answered a questionnaire administered by a classmate. Results indicate that worries about environmental issues predominate. In comparison with previous surveys, this study suggests a recent change in the young generation from concerns about nuclear war to worries over ecological problems.
The role of sense of coherence (SOC) on the relationship between adolescent school-related stress and subjective health complaints was tested with structural equation modelling. As part of the crossnational WHO-survey 'Health behaviour in school-aged children 1997/98' Norwegian representative samples of 1592 grade 6, 1534 grade 8, and 1605 grade 10 students completed measures on SOC, school-related stress and subjective health complaints. A test of nested structural models revealed that both stress-preventive (delta chi2 814. 86, p
According to WHO project "Brain Damage in Utero" in the framework of the screening phase of the programme, 1025 children (725 in experimental group-Novozybkov and Klintsy towns of Bryansk region; 300 in control group--Obninsk town of Kaluga region) and 600 parents (300 in experimental group and 300 in control group) were studied using standardized methods of psychological psychiatric assessment (Draw-a-man test, British picture vocabulary test, Raven coloured matrices, Parental and teacher Rutter Scales, CHQ-28, Verbal subtest of Wechsler test) for potential psychological and psychiatric effects of Chernobyl accident on child's intelligence, behavioural and emotional state, mental health of parents and parental intellectual level. The following results were obtained: comparison of verbal IQ scores in children revealed a 6-fold increase of these values in experiment group. Comparison of nonverbal IQ scores in children revealed that these values are 4 times higher in experimental group. Comparison of scores according to Rutter parental and teacher scales revealed that emotional and behavioural disorders are 1.5 times more prevalent in children of experimental group. All the above differences were statistically significant. Comparison of CHQ-28 scores was indicative of relative prevalence of these values in parents of experimental group, but there was no statistically significant difference between such score in experimental and control groups. Comparison of scores of parental IQ showed relative prevalence of these values in experimental group. The results obtained can not be completely estimated without thorough identification of individual doses received by mothers and their children. Only after obtaining these data it will be possible to solve the problem of dose effect.