A total of 1,729 children (2nd-9th grades) in South Africa, Iceland, Poland, Australia, the U.K., and the U.S.A. rated 20 events in terms of how upsetting they are. Save in Poland, the ratings were in close agreement (r, .85-.97), placing the loss of parent at the top and a new baby sibling at the bottom. In Poland, the baby's arrival led the list. Even so, what was seen as quite upsetting fell everywhere in the same two categories--experiences that threaten one's sense of security and those that occasion personal denigration and embarrassment.
The object of the investigation was to study the behaviour and adjustment of Finnish children following their immigration to Sweden, and to see whether there was any connection between the families' acclimatization and the children's adjustment at the time of the investigation, three years after their migration from Finland. The material consisted of 40 children from 27 families. The parents were interviewed by a Finnish psychologist. The results were co-ordinated with those of an investigation of the same children at school. To judge from the parents' statements, behavioural disorders were to be found in the children more often after immigration than prior to it or three years after. The disturbances most often mentioned as appearing after migration were shyness, poor self-esteem, nail-biting and psychomotor unrest. Children from homes where the parents reported the existence of relationship disturbances, problems with alcohol or depression were more often maladjusted and had greater difficulty in being accepted at school. Even if the adjustment of immigrant children to school can be improved by educational measures, this should also be considered in the context of the families' and parents' situation in society.
Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.
A cross-national study of 104 fourth grade children's concepts of old people and extended family was conducted in Canada and the United States, using the Children's Attitudes Toward the Elderly Scale (CATE), and a modified version of the Gilby and Pederson (1982) Family Concept Interview. Both Anglo-American and African-American children were included in the U.S. sample. Results indicated that Anglo-American and Anglo-Canadian children were significantly more similar in their attitudes toward the elderly and their concepts of family than African-American and Anglo-American children. In comparison with the other two cultural groups, Anglo-American children were significantly more likely to include extended family members in their concept of who is family; Anglo-Canadian children had a significantly higher level of age discrimination ability; and African-American children showed a trend toward more positive attitudes toward older people. Overall findings of negative attitudes toward old people were consistent with earlier studies. The implications of children's ageist attitudes for increasingly aging Western societies are noted, particularly given impoverished children's potential need for extrafamilial social supports.
The aim was to elucidate families' lived experience during a child's cancer treatment. Interviews were conducted with members of 11 affected families. A hermeneutical phenomenological approach was chosen. "Focus on the ill child-An everyday struggle" emerged as an essential theme. The families' lived experience of daily life was described as "feeling drained," "disrupting family life," "feeling locked up and isolated," "retaining normality," "becoming experts," and "changing perspectives." The result indicates that life during a child's cancer treatment is a taxing period and that the entire family is in need of support to ease their burdens.
The first part of this article examines the theoretical justification for applying Luria's approach in the assessment of children. It is concluded that Luria's concepts of functional systems and the principle of specifying primary and secondary deficits may be applied to children. However, the selection of functional components to assess should be based on traditions of child neuropsychology rather than on Luria's assessment of adults. In addition, the tendency for comorbid disorders, mechanisms of neural adaptation to damage, and the prevalent types of brain abnormality in children render brain-behavior relationships more complex in children than in adults. The second part of the article describes how Luria's methods were adapted for use with children. An assessment, NEPSY, was developed by integrating Luria's views with contemporary child neuropsychological traditions. The NEPSY includes 27 homogeneous and psychometrically developed subtests, standardized in the United States and Finland for the age range of 3 to 12 years. The rationale of analyzing disorders of cognitive processes through a comprehensive and systematic assessment of their components, characteristic of Luria's approach, was preserved, but more specific principles of diagnosis were modified. Research findings obtained with a previously published, Finnish NEPSY version are presented.
This review presents the relationship between serious life events, chronic family difficulties and illness, and focuses on how healthy children cope. Hospitalised children had experienced about twice as many serious life events as children in healthy environments. Known diseases related to stress are eczema, upper respiratory tract infections, asthma, ulcerative colitis, heart disease in adults, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and juvenile diabetes. Research on healthy children at risk (resiliences) has revealed a number of social and interpersonal protective factors. A modified biopsychosocial model, for the purpose of understanding the health status and care of children at high risk, is presented. More research is needed to understand these multietiological diseases in order to develop strategies for the promotion of good health.
To examine if the recommended taxonomies for the stages of youth smoking onset are aligned with the beliefs of smoking youth.
The SHAPES Tobacco Module was administered to 23,047 students (grades 9 to 13) in a convenience sample of 29 secondary schools during the 2000-2001 school year in the province of Ontario, Canada. Cross-tabs were used to compare a student's self-perceived smoking status to their smoking status as determined with the currently recommended stage taxonomies for smoking behaviour.
The majority of students classified as regular smokers (52.4%) and experimental smokers (98.9%) did not actually consider themselves to be smokers. Self-reported smoking status appeared to be relatively consistent for the never smoker and established smoker categories.
Additional research is required to develop stage taxonomies that are aligned with the self-perceptions of non-established youth smokers.