The paper gives the results of a study of the biochemical status of general educational school pupils in Orenburg and the Sakmarsky District, Orenburg Region. The findings suggest that biochemical abnormalities found in the urban and rural schoolchildren may result from nutrition that is irrational and inadequate in terms of their age and gender.
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, and obesity may be a contributing factor by increasing the risk and accelerating the onset. We investigated the relation between childhood body mass index z-scores (BMIz) and the later risk of T1D, including association with age at onset of T1D. The study included 238 cases and 10 147 controls selected from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register (CSHRR). Cases of T1D were identified in the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes and 2 regional studies and linked to CSHRR. Using conditional logistic regression models, the association of childhood prediagnostic BMIz at 7 and 13 years of age and changes between these ages with subsequent risk (odds ratio, OR) of T1D was estimated. A greater BMIz at 7 and 13 years of age was associated with increased risk of T1D with OR of 1.23 (confidence interval, CI 1.09-1.37; P = .0001) and 1.20 (CI 1.04-1.40; P = .016), respectively. The risk was increased by upward changes in z-scores from birth to 7 years (OR=1.21, P = .003) and from 7 to 13 years of age (OR=1.95, P = .023), but in the latter age interval also by a decline in BMIz (OR = 1.91, P = .034). There were no associations between BMIz at 7 and 13 years of age and the age of onset (P = .34 and P = .42, respectively). Increased BMIz is associated with a moderate increase in risk of T1D, but with no relation to age at onset within the analyzed age range. Increased BMIz over time is unlikely to explain the rising incidence of T1D.
This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada.
This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary schools in the Porcupine region and 7 schools in the Algoma region. One hundred thirty-nine students from grades 5-8 participated in this study. Inductive content analysis was used to identify key themes.
Children perceived the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program to be a valuable program that allowed them to try new fruits and vegetables (FVs). Participants stated they now eat more FVs at home and at school. Participants would like the program offered more frequently and with more variety.
Although children identified several areas for program improvement, they generally perceived the program to be positive and valuable in promoting FV consumption.
Proliferation of large portions of snack and fast foods parallels dramatic increases in childhood obesity. This study investigates the prevalence, determinants, and consequences of large portions in children's diets.
As part of the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study, we surveyed 4,966 children in Nova Scotia regarding their usual portion sizes of french fries, meats, vegetables, and potato chips using three-dimensional graduated food models. We measured heights and weights and assessed dietary intake with the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Diet quality was summarized using the Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I). Parents were surveyed on food habits and socioeconomic background.
We used multilevel regression methods to examine determinants of children's large portion size choice and to evaluate the effect of this selection on energy intake, diet quality, and overweight.
Children reported preference for portions of french fries, meats, and potato chips that are larger and vegetable portions that are smaller than what is recommended. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families or who frequently eat while watching television and in fast-food restaurants preferred larger portions of french fries and potato chips. Consequences of consuming large portions of these foods included poor diet quality and increased energy intake. Consuming large portions of vegetables was associated with lower energy intake and better diet quality.
Successful marketing of large portions of french fries and potato chips may be at the expense of diet quality and appropriate energy intake. Policy regulations and nutrition education emphasizing appropriate portion sizes provide opportunities to prevent overweight and improve future health.
Comment In: J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jul;107(7):1107-1017604739
A child-to-child programme was carried out in six rural schools in Jamaica. School children in grades 4 and 5 were taught concepts of nutrition, environmental and personal hygiene, and child development. The children were encouraged to take messages home to their parents and improve the care of their younger siblings. Four hundred and twenty-three children and 90 mothers and guardians from four of the project schools were evaluated and compared with 199 children and 47 parents from two control schools. The project children showed higher scores on a test of knowledge in the topics at the end of the year. They also improved in some practices at home. The mothers improved in knowledge in some areas but not in their practices. We consider the results sufficiently encouraging to justify incorporating the programme into the country's education curriculum for primary schools.
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, 1 Stewart Street, Office 303, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
To examine: (i) children's food intake and adherence to both Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating and Dietary Reference Intakes; and (ii) the social and demographic factors related to children's food intake.
A cross-sectional study.
Data were obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010, a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on energy, macronutrient and food consumption was derived from responses to a 24 h dietary recall interview addressed to children's mothers and day-care staff when the children were 4 years old.
A total of 1549 children aged 4 years who participated in a nutritional sub-study.
The mean daily total energy intake was 6360 kJ (1520 kcal) for girls and 6916 kJ (1653 kcal) for boys. For boys and girls alike, energy intake was comprised of approximately 54 % carbohydrates, 31 % fats and 15 % proteins. The mean number of servings consumed from each of the four essential food groups closely approached the dietary recommendations made by Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating; however,
Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school meals based on Nordic foods.
This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.
In a cluster-randomised cross-over design, 1021 children from 3rd and 4th grades (8-11 years old) at nine Danish municipal schools were invited to participate. Classes were assigned to two 3-month periods with free school meals based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) or their usual packed lunch (control). Dietary intake, nutrient status, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep, growth, body composition, early metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers, illness, absence from school, wellbeing, cognitive function, social and cultural features, food acceptance, waste, and cost were assessed.
In total, 834 children (82% of those invited) participated. Although their parents were slightly better educated than the background population, children from various socioeconomic backgrounds were included. The proportion of overweight and obese children (14%) resembled that of earlier examinations of Danish school children. Drop out was 8.3%.
A high inclusion rate and low drop out rate was achieved. This study will be the first to determine whether school meals based on the NND improve children's diet, health, growth, cognitive performance, and early disease risk markers.
In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already existing programs-a clear need in the scientific literature.
Public health policies promote healthy nutrition but evaluations of children's adherence to dietary recommendations and studies of risk factors of poor nutrition are scarce, despite the importance of diet for the temporal increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Here we examine dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia to provide direction for health policies and prevention initiatives.
In 2003, we surveyed 5,200 grade five students from 282 public schools in Nova Scotia, as well as their parents. We assessed students' dietary intake (Harvard's Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire) and compared this with Canadian food group and nutrient recommendations. We summarized diet quality using the Diet Quality Index International, and used multilevel regression methods to evaluate potential child, parental and school risk factors for poor diet quality.
In Nova Scotia, 42.3% of children did not meet recommendations for milk products nor did they meet recommendations for the food groups 'Vegetables and fruit' (49.9%), 'Grain products' (54.4%) and 'Meat and alternatives' (73.7%). Children adequately met nutrient requirements with the exception of calcium and fibre, of which intakes were low, and dietary fat and sodium, of which intakes were high. Skipping meals and purchasing meals at school or fast-food restaurants were statistically significant determinants of poor diet. Parents' assessment of their own eating habits was positively associated with the quality of their children's diets.
Dietary intake among children in Nova Scotia is relatively poor. Explicit public health policies and prevention initiatives targeting children, their parents and schools may improve diet quality and prevent obesity.