This report provides comparative maternal and child health data for recent years for the Russian Federation and the United States. Statistical data for Russia are from the Ministry of Health of Russia and from Goskomstat, the central statistical organization of Russia. Information for the United States comes from various data systems of the National Center for Health Statistics as well as other parts of the Department of Health and Human Services. A background section provides a description of each country's health care system and national guidelines for maternal and child health care. This information is intended to assist the reader in interpreting the subsequent sections on various aspects of maternal and child health. The report uses tables, figures, and commentary to present information on many different health measures for mothers, infants, children, and adolescents in the two countries. Topics covered include population size, prenatal and obstetrical care, abortions, natality, breastfeeding, mortality, immunization, communicable diseases, and other morbidity measures. The commentary includes a discussion of data quality issues that affect the accuracy and comparability of the information presented. Data are provided for selected years from 1985 to 1995. When available, additional detail is provided for key subgroups of each population: for the Russian Federation, urban and rural populations; for the United States, black and white racial groups. A glossary of terms at the end of the report provides additional information on definitions and data sources and limitations.