Sweden has a reputation for gender equality, and its child health services seek to support both parents. However, this meta-ethnographic analysis of 62 studies from 2000 to 2015 covering prenatal clinics, labour and birth wards, postnatal wards and child health centres found programmes had not been designed around paternal needs. Therefore, despite the policy change nearly 50 years ago to include both parents, fathers were still not fully accepted and supported.
To provide fathers in Sweden with greater support throughout the child health field, organisational changes should be considered, as this could provide further beneficial outcomes for children, families and society.
To explore Swedish child health nurses' views on their role of involving fathers at the Child Health Centres (CHCs).
Interviews with 17 experienced Swedish Child Health nurses were recorded, transcribed and analysed using systematic text condensation. Following the first analysis, the transtheoretical model of behavioural change was used to interpret the results.
Four themes emerged during the analysis: (1) the nurses' own agenda; (2) nurses' opinion about the father's role; (3) nurses' gatekeeping; and (4) wanting more father involvement. Most nurses were in the precontemplation stage according to the transtheoretical model when they expressed their roles as nurses (Theme 1), how they perceived the father's role within the family (Theme 2) and how they actively encouraged mothers, but not fathers, to visit the CHCs (Theme 3/Mothers are our priority). Nurses in the contemplation stage started to consider involving fathers in the CHCs (Theme 3/The gate is closed...). Still others were in the preparation (Theme 4/Fathers are worthy of change) and action stages (Theme 4/Active in involving fathers), respectively.
Child Health nurses place more emphasis on engaging mothers than fathers in the services. To increase father involvement, nurses need support to become aware, initiate and maintain action.
The purpose of this study was to describe child health centre (CHC) nurses' views of managing parental groups during early childhood. All 311 CHC nurses working within the Swedish CHC system in one county were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire. Findings showed that although the CHC nurses were experienced, several found group leadership challenging and difficult. The need for specialized groups for young parents, single parents and parents whose first language was not Swedish was identified by 57% of the nurses. The CHC nurses found the participation of fathers in their parental groups to be low (an estimate of 10-20%), and 30% of the nurses made special efforts to make the fathers participate. Education in group dynamics and group leadership can strengthen CHC nurses in managing parental groups. It is recommended that specialized parental groups are organized by a few family centres so CHC nurses can develop their skill in managing such groups.
The increasing number of elderly people in the population and their greater use of the health care system require an increasing number of health care providers to work with older adults. A shortage of health care professionals to provide this care, as well as a reluctance to provide such care have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how occupational therapists decide to work with older adults. Using a comparative approach, 40 occupational therapists were interviewed, 20 working in gerontology and 20 working in paediatrics. The findings indicate that social characteristics and experiences of the individual, as well as the context of work are important influences for practice choice decisions. Mapping of career paths led to the development of a typology to further describe the different influences involved in the career choices of these occupational therapists. Recommendations related to education and practice provide practical means by which to implement change.
AIM: This paper presents findings from a multi-method study exploring the process of care coordination in children's inpatient health care. BACKGROUND: Existing work on care coordination is typified by "black-box" type studies that measure inputs to and outcomes of care coordination roles and practices, without addressing the process of coordination. METHOD: Using questionnaires, interviews and observation to collect data in multiple sites in the United Kingdom and Denmark between 1999 and 2005, the study gathered the perceptions of staff and compared these with observed practice. Giddens' structuration theory was used to provide an analytical and explanatory framework. FINDINGS: Current care coordination practice is diverse and inconsistent. It involves a wide range of clinical and non-clinical staff, many of whom perceive a lack of clarity about who should perform specific coordination activities. Staff draw upon a wide range of different material and non-material resources in coordinating care, the use of which is governed by largely tacit and informal rules. CONCLUSIONS: Care coordination can be usefully conceptualized as a "structurated" process--one that is continually produced and reproduced by staff using rules and resources to "instantiate" or bring about care coordination through action. Potentially negative implications of this are manifested in diversity and inconsistency in care coordination practice. However, positive aspects such as the opportunity this provides to tailor care to the needs of the individual patient can be realized.
It has been suggested that user involvement in heath care leads to improved services. The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards user involvement of staff employed in Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). Most of the investigated mental health service staff expressed the opinion that users should be involved in the planning of their own treatment and generally have a positive attitude towards user involvement. Skepticism was related to some aspects of involvement and does not contradict their generally positive attitude towards user involvement.
The implementation of rights of under-age patients in medical institutions in many ways depends on level of awareness of pediatricians about availability and mechanisms of legal guarantees provided to them by law and hence depends quality of medical care of children population. The study was carried out to analyze opinions of pediatricians about issues of implementation of rights of patients. The results are presented concerning sociological survey of 261 pediatricians of the Samarskaia oblast. The study established inadequate awareness of respondents about ethical legal issues of medicine and rate of application of knowledge about legal acts in practical activity. The awareness was higher among pediatricians of younger age with duration of professional work lesser than 10 years. This phenomenon is explained by inclusion of courses of biomedical ethics and medical law in educational programs of medical educational institutions during last decade. The direct dependence is established between awareness of pediatricians about issues of bioethics and the level of their qualification. The most of the respondents consider that the have sufficient level of knowledge about rights of children-patients and their parents related to reservation of medical secrecy, consent or refuse of parents to medical intervention and receiving full information about child's health. The overwhelming majority of pediatricians, independently of professional category and duration of service, provided this right implementing modern informational and collegiate model of interaction with parents of ill child and informed that always obtained their consent about medical care. However, such rights of children were limited by framework of child's health and ability for apprehending information about one's health and prospective medical intervention. All respondents participated in survey insisted that they never disclosed medical secrecy. The development of legal literacy of pediatricians by promoting activities of organizational methodical departments of medical organizations and self-contained studying of normative legal acts.