[Brief history of creation and activities of Research Institute of Hygiene and Health Protection of Children and Adolescents State Institution Research Centre of Children's Health Protection, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences].
The Institute was founded to study effects of environmental factors on the health status and day-to-day activities of children and adolescents in organized groups and to use the data obtained for the elaboration of measures for the protection and promotion of their health. The Institute is up to now the sole research institution of this kind in the Russian Federation entitled to coordinate problem-solving efforts on a national scale. Since 2000, it has been functioning as the National Centre for support of the European network of health promoting schools. The Institute developed a concept of research designed to resolve topical problems facing hygienic science and practical health service; it implicates elaboration of hygienic norms and regulations taking into account age, sex, health status, and the level of mental and physical development of individual children. The main lines of research carried out at the Institute are listed with special reference to the theoretical aspects of such cardinal problems of child hygiene as adaptation, hygienic regulation and standardization, etc. The Institute participated in the development of a new basic curriculum and the state education standard law. The authors present results of multidisciplinary research and developments obtained at the Institute. Specialists of the Institute are involved in the work of international scientific societies.
The drastic urbanization of modern society, the wide use of new teaching methods and programs at the educational establishments, the emergence of new types of pre-school educational institutions (PEI), the change of age-specific composition of children in both PEI and educational establishments require that new documents on the basic types of educational establishments should be worked out. The financing of work into preparing sanitary legislative documents has not been solved so far. In connection with the adoption of the Federal Law "On Technical Regulation", while preparing the technical regulations, society is to guarantee a child the development environment, good growth conditions, including the optimum level of functions.
The paper presents data on the history of foundation of the Research Institute for the Hygiene and Health Care of Children and Adolescents. The Institute is reported to have established to study the influence of factors of the vital activity environment and the health status and capability of children and adolescents, and the development, on this basis, of measures aimed at maintaining and promoting the health status of the rising generation. The Institute is the only research establishment of this profile in the Russian Federation, the leading scientific institution on this problem. Since 2000, the Institute has been the national center for supporting the European network of health promotion schools. By taking into account the tasks posed by hygienic science and practical health care, the Institute has developed a research concept stemming from the peculiarities of the body at each stage of development and, in this connection, hygienic standards and regulations in terms of the sex, age, health status, and achieved development of a child. The paper lists research areas, teaching points of cardinal problems of childhood hygiene, such as adaptation, hygienic rationing. The Institute took part in the development of hygienic standards, a new basic school-based educational program, and the Law on State Educational Standard. Research developments obtained from the Institute's multidimensional studies are outlined. The specialists of the Institute are actively involved in the activity of international medical associations.
The National Strategy defines the main directions and objectives of public policy in the interests of children and the key mechanisms for its implementation. The strategy is based on the universally recognized principles and norms of international law. Implementation of the National Strategy will be realized in the following areas: Family Child Welfare Policy, availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, child-friendly health care, and healthy lifestyle; equal opportunities for children in need of special care of the State, the creation of protection and safeguarding the rights and interests of children and child-friendly justice, and children - members of the realization of National Strategy. School health care is intended to be actively involved in two directions: availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, health care, child-friendly and healthy lifestyle. The main tasks in the part of hygiene and children's health are: state support for the construction of new preschool educational institutions and the development of all forms of safe preschool education, including non-state sector, providing for every upperclassman safe choice of training profile corresponding to his inclinations and life plans, as well as the functional possibilities and health state; providing quality psychological, correctional and pedagogical aid to children in educational institutions; renewal of forms and methods of control of child neglect, drug addiction, alcoholism, crime, prostitution; the development of effective mechanisms in prevention of deviant behavior in childhood; the creation and implementation of training programs for children and adolescents on rules of safety behavior in the World Wide Web, prevention of Internet addiction; the introduction of the system for monitoring of the educational environment; the creation of portals and sites accumulating the information about best resources for children and parents. Creation child-friendly health care is provided by: improvement of the regulatory and legal framework in the area of the healthcare of children, the development of technologies for complex diagnosis and early medical and social care for children with deviations in development and health, development of adolescent medicine, creation of the Youth Counselling Centres, centers for reproductive health care for adolescents and centers for medical and social care for adolescents; implementation of educational work on the prevention of early pregnancies and abortions in minors; support for successfully realized projects for creation friendly to children and young people clinics in the regions; restoring medical offices in educational institutions, the encouragement of responsibility of health staff in medical institutions in delivery of health care to children, available developed network of institutions, including telephone emergency services, counseling online, providing help to children and adolescents to will protect children in hardship. Availability of physical culture and sports, tourism infrastructure for all children with bearing in mind their individual needs, increasing the proportion of children and adolescents regularly engaged in physical culture and sport, will meet natural biological move requirements of children.