Fat and fat-free masses and fat distribution are related to cardiometabolic risk.
to explore how birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI gain were related to adolescent body composition and central obesity.
In a population-based longitudinal study, body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 907 Norwegian adolescents (48% girls). Associations between birth weight, BMI categories, and BMI gain were evaluated by fitting linear mixed models and conditional growth models with fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2 ), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2 ) standard deviation scores (SDS), and central obesity at 15 to 20 years, as well as change in FMI SDS and FFMI SDS between ages 15 to 17 and 18 to 20 as outcomes.
Birth weight was associated with FFMI in adolescence. Greater BMI gain in childhood, conditioned on prior body size, was associated with higher FMI, FFMI, and central overweight/obesity with the strongest associations seen at age 6 to 16.5 years: FMI SDS: ß = 0.67, 95% CI (0.63-0.71), FFMI SDS: 0.46 (0.39, 0.52), in girls, FMI SDS: 0.80 (0.75, 0.86), FFMI SDS: 0.49 (0.43, 0.55), in boys.
Compared with birth and early childhood, high BMI and greater BMI gain at later ages are strong predictors of higher fat mass and central overweight/obesity at 15 to 20 years of age.
Growth retardation is well described in childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
To study if childhood-onset IBD is associated with reduced final adult height.
We identified 4201 individuals diagnosed with childhood-onset IBD 1990-2014 (Crohn's disease: n = 1640; ulcerative colitis: n = 2201 and IBD-unclassified = 360) in the Swedish National Patient Register.
Patients with IBD attained a lower adult height compared to reference individuals (adjusted mean height difference [AMHD] -0.9 cm [95% CI -1.1 to -0.7]) and to their healthy siblings (AMHD -0.8 cm [-1.0 to -0.6]). Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were slightly shorter than patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; -1.3 cm vs -0.6 cm). Lower adult height was more often seen in patients with pre-pubertal disease onset (AMHD -1.6 cm [-2.0 to -1.2]), and in patients with a more severe disease course (AMHD -1.9 cm, [-2.4 to -1.4]). Some 5.0% of CD and 4.3% of UC patients were classified as growth retarded vs 2.5% of matched reference individuals (OR 2.42 [95% CI 1.85-3.17] and 1.74 [1.36-2.22] respectively).
Patients with childhood-onset IBD on average attain a slightly lower adult height than their healthy peers. Adult height was more reduced in patients with pre-pubertal onset of disease and in those with a more severe disease course.
Epigenetic and life history approaches to child growth are centered on the relationship between the organism and its environment. However, defining and operationalizing the concept of environment is challenging, in light of the multiple variables that influence growth. Moreover, the concept of adaptation as it applies to child growth is seldom considered in the developed country context. This paper presents a study of children living in three neighborhoods in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Two of the communities are considered adverse environments on the basis of low socioeconomic status, and their inner city, industrial location. In contrast to children living in the higher socioeconomic status area, children in these adverse environments display negative growth indicators, i.e., somewhat constrained linear growth in one and risk for overweight and obesity in both. Although both these inner city neighborhoods constitute adverse environments, they differ in ways that have a significant impact on children's growth. We argue for a definition of "adverse environment" that is broadly based, incorporating a range of physical, social, and temporal factors that are highly localized and sensitive to community-level influences on growth and health. As well, we consider whether higher prevalence of overweight and obesity is adaptive in any way to these adverse environments and conclude that they are more likely to be deleterious than adaptive in either the long or short term.
Interinstitute Laboratory for Comparative Ecological-Physiological Studies, I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The central mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary regulation of attention in schoolchildren from the northern region were studied using a method based on the P300 wave of evoked brain potentials (the oddball paradigm). Data were compared with results obtained from psychological tests. Differences in the organization of EP were seen in the "passive" and active (counting) perception of deviant stimuli. Three components were identified within the time envelop of the P300 wave, two of which dominated in the frontal and one in the parietal area of the cerebral cortex. The latency of the P300 wave decreased with age in the children, reflecting increased rates of information processing and increases in the volume of operative memory. In passive perception, the statistical relationship characterized by a reduction in P300 latency with age was significant for leads in the central, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas; in active perception, this applied to all areas including the frontal. The most significant changes in P300 parameters were seen in children aged from seven to 12 years, indicating that this period can be regarded as "critical" in the development of learning skills. The roles of the parietal and frontal areas of the cortex in the mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary regulation of attention are discussed, along with the possibility of using the P300 method to identify children with delayed rates of development of voluntary attention in population studies.
Four and eighty-one schoolchildren aged 7-17 years, living at a height of 2100 m above sea level, and 1677 schoolchildren of the same age, living at a height of 100-400 m above sea level, from the Kabardin-Balkarian Republic were examined by the list of morphological indices of physical development (PD), such as height (cm), body weight (kg), and chest circumference (cm). The results were rated by using the 5-score scale, by calculating the integral indicator of PD (low, moderate, and high). The schoolchildren living at high heights were ascertained to have high values. In the schoolchildren living at low heights, PD is of more harmony; the altitude children have the developed chest along with the smaller height and lower body weight. The geographical differences in three parameters of PH between Kabardin-Balkarian schoolchildren were heterodirectional: the altitude children outrun the plain one in height during a short period of time (the boys outrun at the age of 10 to 13 years; the girls do at the age of 11 to 14 years). In terms of body weight, the children from the study groups either outrun, or lag each other, in the boys and girls, these variations being opposite in time. From the age of 10 years, the altitude children of both sexes surpass the plain ones in chest circumference.
The paper presents data on the formation of spatial synchronization of brain potentials in 91 children aged 7-18 years living in European North of Russia. We estimated coherence values for 19 derivations (pair 171) in five EEG frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta). We described age-related changes, gender differences and topical specific features of the formation of coherence in the left and right hemispheres, and in inter- and intrahemispheric synchronization. We carried out computer assessment of the differences in EEG coherence between three age groups of children in order to determine criteria for identification of children with retarded formation of spatial organization of local EEG processes. Age-related changes in the structure of EEG patterns observed in the study reflect the processes of morphofunctional brain development in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe conditions of northern climate.
Using unified Bunak's method, age- and gender-related growth dynamics of anthropometric parameters was evaluated in 2428 schoolchildren aged 7-18 years living in the city of Nal'chik. The first curve decussation of the absolute values studied, indicative of the beginning of puberty in girls occured at the age of 9.5 to 11.5 years; the second, which is typical for the puberty in boys, took place at the age of 11.5 to 14.5. After the second curve decussation (after 15 years), all the investigated parameters in boys, with the exception of pelvic width, were significantly higher as compared to those in girls; maximal differences were detected at the age of 18. The girls pass ahead of the boys in their development by 2-3 years. Quetelet II index values were found to be normal both in boys and girls at 18 years, indicating the moderate degree of development of subcutaneous adipose tissue.
The effect of altitude of residence on the growth status of 11,454 indigenous school children 6-14 years of age in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was examined. Indicators of living conditions (human development index [HDI], index of community nutritional risk [INR], index of marginalization [IM], index of relative isolation [II]) were regressed on z-scores for height, weight and BMI, and the residuals were regressed on altitude of residence (km). Independent of other environmental conditions, altitude negatively affected height by approximately -0.07 z-scores per kilometer altitude above sea level. The estimated average decrease in stature was 0.92 cm per kilometer elevation. BMI was significantly increased, 1.2 units per kilometer elevation, consistent with earlier studies of growth status and altitude. In contrast, weight was not affected by altitude of residence. Approximately 36% of the reduction in height and 54% of the increase in BMI were due to altitude effects; the remaining changes in height and BMI were associated with environmental factors reflected in the indices of community well-being considered.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Latent Growth Model (LGM) to researchers in exercise and sport science. Although the LGM has several merits over traditional analysis techniques in analyzing change and was first introduced almost 20 years ago, it is still underused in exercise and sport science research. This statistical model can be applied to any repeated measures data, but it is most useful when one has an a priori hypothesis about the patterns of change. The strengths of latent growth modeling include: (a) both individual and group levels of change are estimated, (b) either a linear or a curvilinear trajectory can represent individual change, (c) occasions of measurement need not be equally spaced, (d) the statistical model can account for measurement errors, (e) the model can easily include multiple predictors or correlates of change, and (f) as in general structural equation models, statistical models are flexible and allow one to extend the basic idea in several ways, such as comparing changes between groups and examining the change in multivariate latentfactors. In this paper, the basics and an extension of latent growth modeling are explained, and examples with longitudinal physical performance data are presented, along with detailed analysis procedures and considerations.