A retrospective investigation was undertaken of the connection between absence on account of illness and the hygienic routines in 28 day institutions in the County of Storstrøm. A total of 953 children aged 0-6 years were involved. Absence on account of illness was described on the basis of registration for three months carried out by the staffs of the day institutions. On the basis of information about sick-leave, interview investigations were carried out the hygienic routines in the six day institutions which showed the highest and lowest absenteeism on account of illness, respectively. Only slight differences were found in the hygienic routines in the institutions investigated and no connections were found between sickness and hygiene. On the other hand, there appears to have been a connection between absence on account of illness and time spent out-of-doors; the greatest illness being observed in the institutions where the children spent least time out-of-doors. With the object preventions of illness among children in day institutions, further investigations concerning the significance of time spent out-of-doors and the indoor environment for these children would be of interest.
The present work demonstrates a close association between illness-associated absence among children below 4 y of age in day-care, and the age-related composition of the child groups. The study, which spanned a 4 y period and is based on illness-related absence from day-care in a Stockholm suburb, shows that morbidity decreases significantly among young children as age-integration in the groups is intensified. Absence due to illness was most common in toddler groups of infants up to 3 y of age. Among sibling groups of children in the age range 0-6 y, illness-related absence was lower among toddlers compared to toddlers in age-separated groups, and significantly lower in extended sibling groups in the age range 0-12 y. Morbidity among children older than 3 y was not affected in the same way by group structure.
The number of days of absence because of sickness, recorded for all children in one city in Finland, cared for in municipal day care over a period of 2.5 years, was collected from the monthly figures kept by the city council office for accounting purposes. The average number of days of absence per child was 24 per year at child-care centers and 9 in family care (p
Absenteeism because of illness was recorded for 346 children and 98 staff members at eight daycare centers in Gothenburg during a nine-month period between October 1987 and June 1988. A comparison was made with a similar, nationwide study, carried out in 1977 by the Swedish Central Bureau of Statistics. This comparison demonstrated that the absence of children and employees from daycare centers for health reasons was of the same proportion in the present study as that reported a decade earlier. Absenteeism because of illness among the 346 children at the daycare centers was also compared with absenteeism among 49 children in 14 groups run according to the three-family system (three to six children/group). It was found that absenteeism was at least twice as frequent among children at daycare centers than among those in the three-family system.
The aim of this one-year prospective study of accidents in day-care centres was to determine the incidence and mechanisms of accidents and their severity. During 1985, 347 accidents were reported among 14511 children in communal day-care centres, an incidence of 24/1,000 children/year. The corresponding figures were 53 and 38 in 1975 and 1980, respectively. The accidents, especially those due to violence and falling, tended to occur during the morning hours and on Mondays and Tuesdays. Half the cases were treated in hospitals and one-third in health centres. The most usual mechanisms, falling stumbling and violence, covered two-thirds of all accidents.