The present study focuses on the parents of the first group of children in Sweden to receive a bone marrow transplant and survive. Its aim was to get in-depth knowledge of the parents' situation during this critical time. The result of 10 years of research (1988-98), the study deals with the situation to which the parents had to adapt and the strategies that they used to handle their situation within a long-term perspective. Two series of qualitative interviews with the parents of 20 children who had undergone bone marrow transplantation were carried out. A self-report questionnaire for coping was also used. The result shows that the child's illness and treatment played an important role in the parents' lives for many years. Those parents who managed to put reason before emotion rated their coping as better. A sense of participation was also a useful coping strategy.
Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American.
The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland.
The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates.
Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight.
Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied.
Despite growing evidence for an inverse relationship of motherhood and physical activity, studies of the possible correlates for behavior change are scant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in leisure-time physical activity behaviors of 139 urban women during the transition to motherhood in retrospective analysis and evaluate their physical activity changes using the theory of planned behavior during motherhood. Perceptions of control based on time, fatigue, social support, and childcare were the critical correlates that distinguished between those who continued with physical activity and those who declined. These results provide evidence for targeted PA interventions during the transition to motherhood.
Extensive exposure to nonparental child care during the first 4.5 years of life has been demonstrated in some American studies to negatively affect children's socioemotional functioning. Data from 935 preschool children who averaged 54.9 (SD = 3.0) months of age, from Trondheim, Norway were used to examine whether such negative effects, would emerge in Norway, a country with a different child-care system. The children's externalizing problems and social competence were unrelated to their child-care experience. More time spent in child care during the first 4.5 years of life and experiencing peer groups of 18 children predicted greater caregiver-child conflict. The effect sizes were small. The results are discussed in terms of cross-national child-care differences.
The aim of the present study was to examine those resources and strengths that mothers find helpful for coping with child care when the child was 8 months old. This study is part of a more extensive longitudinal study project in which the growth into motherhood of first-time mothers was followed for 8 months postpartum. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires between August 1995 and March 1996. The sample comprised 254 first-time mothers and 248 mothers returned the questionnaires by mail. The multivariate method used was a stepwise regression analysis. Predictors included in the multivariate method to explain coping with child care were as follows: the mother's competence, mother's attachment to the child, mother's self-concept, relation to the spouse, breastfeeding, decision-making support from the public health nurse and activity of the child. The strongest predictor was competence as a mother. The more competent the mother felt and the more attached the mother was to her child, the better her coping. The better the mother's self-concept and relationship with the spouse were, the better she succeeded in taking care of the child. If the mother still breastfed her child and received decision-making support from public health nurses, she coped better in child care. Finally the more active the child was, the more the risk for unsuccessful child care increased. The results indicate that the first-time mother's successful coping with child care when the child is 8 months old is associated with her own resources and attachment to the child as well as activity of the child and breastfeeding. A good relationship between the spouses and support for decision making from the public health nurse also contribute to coping with child care.
Imperforate anus is a malformation of the child's anus. Parents' experiences of responsibility for care of the child may differ. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gender perspective on the extent to which mothers and fathers each take responsibility for the care of a child with high and intermediate imperforate anus. Parents of children with imperforate anus and two control groups of children and parents participated. Data collection with questionnaires focusing on responsibility was performed. In conclusion, our study revealed additional evidence of unevenly divided parental responsibility for care of a child with a chronic condition. The mothers in this study were shown to be the primary caregiver.
Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children's externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample (n = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes externalizing problems. Using conventional approaches to handling selection bias and listwise deletion for substantial attrition in this sample, more hours in care predicted higher problem levels, yet with small effect sizes. The finding, however, was not robust to using multiple imputation for missing values. Moreover, when sibling and individual fixed-effects models for handling selection bias were used, no relation between hours and problems was evident.
Maternal depression is a major risk factor for the development of children's mental health problems. No population-based study to date has examined whether early child care spanning the full preschool period from infancy onward is protective for children of depressed mothers.
To examine whether early child care moderates associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child internalizing problems (emotional problems [EPs], separation anxiety symptoms, and social withdrawal symptoms [SWSs]) during the preschool period.
Population-based prospective cohort study within the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development.
Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development participants (n?=?1759) assessed repeatedly between ages 5 and 60 months.
High-level trajectories of EPs, SWSs, and separation anxiety symptoms between ages 17 and 60 months.
Child care age at entry moderated associations between MDSs and child internalizing problems. Among children of mothers with elevated MDSs, reduced odds ratios for EPs and SWSs were found for those entering child care early (0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.66 for EPs and 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.92 for SWSs) or late (0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.77 for EPs and 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.65 for SWSs) compared with those remaining in maternal care. Child care type moderated the association between MDSs and child EPs; children of mothers with elevated MDSs who received group-based child care had lower odds ratios for EPs than those who remained in maternal care (0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.48) or those who were cared for by a relative or babysitter (0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94).
Regulated early child care services reduced the risks for internalizing problems for children of mothers with elevated MDSs. Regulated child care services may be used as a public health intervention to buffer the negative effect of maternal depression on children's internalizing problems.
Divorce and remarriage influence family relations, yet few studies explore changes in grandparenting due to family recomposition. We study variations in grandparental investment when the parents have children from several unions. Using nationally representative data of younger adults from the Generational Transmissions in Finland survey conducted in 2012 (sample n = 760 parents), we compare the grandchild care that parents report having received from their parents and parents-in-law. Results show that multipartner fertility is not associated with the amount of grandparental investment a parent receives from his or her own parents, but is associated with the investment received from mother's parents-in-law. Mother's parents-in-law are less likely to invest in grandchild sets which include step-grandchildren, compared to grandchildren living with their original parents. Fully biological grandchildren are 31% more likely to receive grandparental care compared to grandchild sets including step grandchildren. Thus the reduction in grandparental investment associated with step-grandchildren may also affect children from the new union.