Absenteeism because of illness was recorded for 346 children and 98 staff members at eight daycare centers in Gothenburg during a nine-month period between October 1987 and June 1988. A comparison was made with a similar, nationwide study, carried out in 1977 by the Swedish Central Bureau of Statistics. This comparison demonstrated that the absence of children and employees from daycare centers for health reasons was of the same proportion in the present study as that reported a decade earlier. Absenteeism because of illness among the 346 children at the daycare centers was also compared with absenteeism among 49 children in 14 groups run according to the three-family system (three to six children/group). It was found that absenteeism was at least twice as frequent among children at daycare centers than among those in the three-family system.
Teaching safety rules is a common way parents attempt to moderate injury risk for elementary-school children, but few studies have examined the nature of this teaching. The present study explored whether mothers' safety rules varied with type of injury (falls, poisoning, burns and cuts), the nature of these teaching strategies about rules, and how effective these rules were to moderate children's risk behaviour when in a setting having 'contrived' hazards that were targeted by these rules.
Mothers completed an interview about safety rules, and children's behaviour was unobtrusively observed in a 'contrived hazards' situation having hazards relevant to falls, poisoning, burns and cuts.
Mothers had significantly fewer rules addressing fall risks than other types of injuries, and fall-related rules were highly hazard-specific in nature, rather than aimed at teaching general principles for appraising fall risks. For all types of injuries except falls, children interacted with fewer hazards for which there were rules.
Rules can have preventive properties that can serve to moderate children's interacting with hazards when alone, but this seems to vary depending on the type of rule that has been taught. Given that falls are a leading cause of injury hospitalization for children and that parents are not emphasizing fall prevention as much as other types of injuries, efforts should be extended to promote parents' shifting their prevention approaches to better address this particular injury risk.
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of caregiving arrangement on the iron and folate status of infants and toddlers reared at home or enrolled in centre-based, independent home, or licensed home care. One hundred and eighty-nine children aged 2 to 29 months were assessed 1 month prior to child care entry and at 6 months after entry into child care. Dietary (24-hour records), anthropometric (height, weight, head circumference) and biochemical (red blood cell folate, hematocrit, transferrin, and serum ferritin concentrations) methods were used to assess nutritional status. Frequency of illness was determined by a series of telephone interviews. Median intake of nutrients exceeded Canadian recommendations, regardless of care arrangement. Fifteen of 65 children had hematocrit values below age-specific cutoffs at the 6-month post-entry to child care visit. Children were frequently taken to obtain medical advice (average of 4 to 6 times during the study period) and 75% of subjects were prescribed at least one course of antibiotics. In conclusion, infants and toddlers in this study were generally well nourished, regardless of child care arrangement; however, iron status may remain an issue in this sample of infants and toddlers.
Baseline data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used to evaluate the associations between child care arrangement and poor developmental attainment (PDA). A weighted total of 521,800 children aged 2 to 3 years were studied (N = 2,709). PDA was assessed by age-standardized motor and social development score. Children were grouped by the predominant type of arrangement: care by someone in the child's own home, in another home (family child care), at a child care centre, or none (child care exclusive to parents). Controlling for socioeconomic status, biological factors and maternal immigration, family dysfunction, hostile parenting and low neighbourhood safety were correlated with PDA and positive parent-child interaction decreased the odds of PDA. Whereas centre child care arrangements were beneficial to development overall (OR = 0.41, 99% CI = 0.18, 0.93), an interaction existed between type of child care and maternal depression; among children with depressed mothers, centre child care was associated with increased odds of PDA. Findings suggest that the associations between child care arrangement and child development involve interactions of factors that influence a child's home environment. Future child development studies exploring these interactions are warranted.
Over recent decades, two prominent trends have been observed in Canada and elsewhere: increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and increasing participation of women (including mothers) in the paid labour force and resulting demand for child care options. While an association between child care and children's body mass index (BMI) is plausible and would have policy relevance, its existence and nature in Canada is not known.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, we examined exposure to three types of care at age 2/3 years (care by non-relative, care by relative, care in a daycare centre) in relation to change in BMI percentile (continuous and categorical) between age 2/3 years and age 6/7 years, adjusting for health and sociodemographic correlates.
Care by a non-relative was associated with an increase in BMI percentile between age 2/3 years and age 6/7 years for boys, and for girls from households of low income adequacy.
Considering the potential benefits of high-quality formal child care for an array of health and social outcomes and the potentially adverse effects of certain informal care options demonstrated in this study and others, our findings support calls for ongoing research on the implications of diverse child care experiences for an array of outcomes including those related to weight.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection. METHODS: This was a population-based prospective cohort study of 1,110,973 Danish children aged 0 to 5 years in the period 1989-2004. By means of Poisson regression, risk for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization was evaluated by incidence rate ratio and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Overall, children who were attending child care had an IRR of gastrointestinal infection hospitalization of 1.02 compared with children in home care. When compared within the group of children who attended child care, those who were enrolled after 18 months of age had a slightly increased risk compared with those who were enrolled before 1 year of age. The first 5 months of enrollment were associated with an IRR of 1.18 compared with later periods, and similar risks were observed in different types of child care facilities. The effect of child care was similar in most strata of the studied child, family, and demographic variables; however, children younger than 1 year who attended child care had an IRR of 1.44 compared with children of the same age in home care. Well established risk factors for gastrointestinal infection such as young age and male gender were reproduced; compared with 5-year-olds, children younger than 1 year had an IRR of 7.37 and boys had an IRR of 1.18 compared with girls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that child care attendance is not a substantial risk factor for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization in most Danish children. Late enrollment and the first short period of enrollment were associated with a slightly increased risk for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization.
Socially disadvantaged children with academic difficulties at school entry are at increased risk for poor health and psychosocial outcomes. Our objective is to test the possibility that participation in childcare--at the population level--could attenuate the gap in academic readiness and achievement between children with and without a social disadvantage (indexed by low levels of maternal education).
A cohort of infants born in the Canadian province of Quebec in 1997/1998 was selected through birth registries and followed annually until 7 years of age (n = 1,863). Children receiving formal childcare (i.e., center-based or non-relative out-of-home) were distinguished from those receiving informal childcare (i.e., relative or nanny). Measures from 4 standardized tests that assessed cognitive school readiness (Lollipop Test for School Readiness), receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised), mathematics (Number Knowledge Test), and reading performance (Kaufman Assessment Battery for children) were administered at 6 and 7 years.
Children of mothers with low levels of education showed a consistent pattern of lower scores on academic readiness and achievement tests at 6 and 7 years than those of highly educated mothers, unless they received formal childcare. Specifically, among children of mothers with low levels of education, those who received formal childcare obtained higher school readiness (d = 0.87), receptive vocabulary (d = 0.36), reading(d = 0.48) and math achievement scores (d = 0.38; although not significant at 5%) in comparison with those who were cared for by their parents. Childcare participation was not associated with cognitive outcomes among children of mothers with higher levels of education.
Public investments in early childcare are increasing in many countries with the intention of reducing cognitive inequalities between disadvantaged and advantaged children. Our findings provide further evidence suggesting that formal childcare could represent a preventative means of attenuating effects of disadvantage on children's early academic trajectory.
A prospective, longitudinal, epidemiological study of acute otitis media (AOM) in children started in Malmö in 1977 and is planned to continue for about 10 years. All cases of AOM in children are registered. The registration includes the name of the patient, the individual ten-digit birth-number and date and place of diagnosis. The registered information is supplemented with information on the patients' dwelling and type of day-care within the city at the time of diagnosis. All data are computerized. In 1977, all children up to 3 years of age were registered. In each of the following two years, a new age class was included. Since 1980 children up to 15 years have been registered. The results regarding the occurrence of AOM in 1980 show that about 10% of all children under 16 years of age had at least one episode of AOM. The disease was most common among one-year-olds, and about 30% of this age class had at least one episode. The occurrence did not vary with sex. AOM was most common during the winter season. The results of the cohort study of children born in 1977, with an observation time of maximum 48 months, show that children aged 6-11 months run the greatest risk of getting AOM. Fifty-four % of the children had at least one episode before the age of 48 months, and 48% of these children had more than one episode. There was no difference between the sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)