This paper is an examination of the effectiveness of a programme (described in detail elsewhere) designed to admit whole families for short-term intensive assessment and treatment. The goals of this programme are to eliminate residential care for symptomatic children who are admitted with their families to this service, to decrease the length of stay of the symptomatic child in residential treatment, if this is required following admission of the whole family to this unit, and to provide these services at costs comparable to or less than that currently being spent with conventional residential treatment. Results stemming from a number of pre- and post-treatment measures indicate that one half of the children initially assessed and recommended for inpatient treatment had successfully avoided inpatient treatment for six months following admission of their family to this unit. For children recommended for residential care after admission of their families to the family unit, a reduction of approximately 35% of total time in residence occurred (when compared with a comparison group). A cost saving of over +12,000 per case was realized as a result of admission of the whole family when compared with residential treatment.
The relevance of resilience research for clinical practice has not yet been established. In this intervention pilot study, the aim was to explore how group work based on enhancing the participants' creativity, self-efficacy, active coping, and sense of continuity could be utilized within a clinical context for adolescents with stressful background experiences. 31 participants and 24 parents completed pre-, post-, and 1-yr. follow-up assessments of the youths' behavior difficulties, as well as depression, positive life attitude, coping, and prosocial behavior. Apart from a drop in self-rated prosocial behavior, no significant treatment effects were found. Implications for clinical practice and research are indicated.
Data from 99 school-aged Bosnian refugee children living in Sweden were analyzed to reveal the patterns of war stress experienced and the relation between these stressors and current psychological problems. A significant pattern of associations emerged. When children had experienced much stress, talking about their experiences seemed to exacerbate their negative effects.
Using a sample of 647 Canadian children in kindergarten to Grade 3 (325 boys, 322 girls), the present study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of Skillstreaming (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2003), a widely known social skills program implemented to target the development of four skill sets, i.e., listening, following directions, problem-solving, and knowing when to tell. Results indicated significant postprogram improvements in all skills as well as in ratings of overall prosociality obtained from both classroom teachers and mental health staff, with medium to large effect sizes obtained from teachers' and mental health professionals' ratings, respectively. Additional analyses yielded significant but weak moderator effects of grade and preprogram prosocial functioning for teacher ratings but no consistent moderator effects for children's sex or school location (i.e., urban versus rural) regardless of rater.
Structured parent training has been proven to be effective in reducing disruptive behavior problems (DBP) in children. Most of the programs that are used in Sweden have their origin in North America, and there is an ongoing debate over the transferability to Sweden of manual-based programs developed in other contexts. The goal of the present study was to study effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent-training program (IY), developed in the US, in regular clinical work in Sweden, using a randomized controlled design. Parents of 62 four to eight-year-old children diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder participated in the study. Parents of 38 children were assigned to parent training (PT) and 24 to a waiting list (WL). The results indicate that the IYS retains the positive effects on children's disruptive behavior problems when translated and transferred to Swedish. There was a statistically significant difference in reduction of DBP in children between the groups in favor of the PT. The improvement in the PT group was sustained at the one-year follow-up. The improvement also, at least to some extent, generalized over time to the school context. There was also a statistically significant difference in mothers' report of pre to post change in parenting alliance between the PT and WL groups. The IYS program was appreciated and well received by the participating mothers.
To elucidate processes underlying therapeutic change in a large-scale randomized clinical trial, we examined whether alterations in self-reported parenting practices were associated with the effects of behavioral, medication, or combination treatments on teacher-reported outcomes (disruptive behavior, social skills, internalizing symptoms) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 579 children with Combined-type ADHD, aged 7-9.9 years, in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). We uncovered 2 second-order factors of parenting practices, entitled Positive Involvement and Negative/Ineffective Discipline. Although Positive Involvement was not associated with amelioration of the school-based outcome measures, reductions in Negative/Ineffective Discipline mediated improvement in children's social skills at school. For families showing the greatest reductions in Negative/Ineffective Discipline, effects of combined medication plus behavioral treatment were pronounced in relation to regular community care. Furthermore, only in combination treatment (and not in behavioral treatment alone) was decreased Negative/Ineffective Discipline associated with reduction in children's disruptive behavior at school. Here, children in families receiving combination treatment who showed the greatest reductions in Negative/Ineffective Discipline had teacher-reported disruptive behavior that was essentially normalized. Overall, the success of combination treatment for important school-related outcomes appears related to reductions in negative and ineffective parenting practices at home; we discuss problems in interpreting the temporal sequencing of such process-outcome linkages and the means by which multimodal treatment may be mediated by psychosocial processes related to parenting.
Parents seeking help for their child's mental health problem face a complicated system of services. We examined how parents navigate the various services available. Sixty parents contacting a children's mental health center were interviewed regarding their efforts and rationale in seeking help for their child. On average, in the year prior to the interview parents sought help for two different child problems, contacted five different agencies or professionals for help, and parents and/or children received two different treatments. One fifth of the time parents said they accepted treatments that they did not want. Almost all parents (87%) were simultaneously in contact with more than one agency at some point within the previous year. Future help-seeking models need to capture the iterative referral process that many parents experience.
The present study compared parent and teacher evaluations of behavioral problems in a sample of school-age child psychiatric inpatients on admission and at 5-month follow-up. Both parents and teachers viewed changes in children's emotional/behavioral problems over the course of the follow-up period rather similarly. In general, parents and teachers viewed children's behavior as significantly improved relative to pretreatment.
Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world.
The development and use is reported of a client satisfaction questionnaire to be answered by parents of children and adolescents referred to an outpatient psychiatric program. The structure of the questionnaire and the results from a first application are reported. It is suggested that a client satisfaction questionnaire may become an important feedback instrument useful for service planning.