The objective of this paper was to determine the degree of diagnostic overlap between attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) and conduct disorder (CD) and to see whether ADDH children show a different pattern of demographic, familial, and developmental correlates compared to CD children. The sample for this study consisted of 2,697 4- to 16-year-olds who participated in the Ontario Child Health Study. In terms of diagnostic overlap, ADDH and CD occurred together more often than by chance alone, particularly among girls. Pure groups of ADDH and CD children differed in a variety of ways. In general, ADDH children were younger and had experienced more developmental delays and less psychosocial disadvantage than the CD children. No differences were found with respect to associated impairments, a measure of severity. Children with both ADDH and CD (a mixed group) appeared to represent a true hybrid disorder rather than one diagnosis or the other. These findings support the validity of ADDH compared to CD, at least in terms of the pattern of correlates.
Fifty-two extremely premature born and 54 full-term controls were assessed regarding behavioral outcomes, risk-taking and self-perceived quality of life. Behavioral outcomes were assessed with the Achenbach Youth Self Report; risk-taking was estimated regarding alcohol and nicotine use; self-perceived quality of life and future expectations were rated; and attention and hyperactivity problems were surveyed retrospectively with the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The prematurely born reported fewer problems than full-term born on the externalizing scale (delinquent behavior and aggressive behaviour); and they reported less alcohol consumption. No difference was observed between the two groups concerning nicotine use, views about quality of life and expectations for the future or in the retrospective assessment of attention and hyper-activity problems. Conclusively, the prematurely born adolescents described a quality of life and future expectations comparable to full-term born controls. They also reported fewer behavioral problems and less risk-taking behavior.
Associations between sleep and behaviour in 635 children, aged six to eight years, were investigated using parental responses to a sleep habits questionnaire, and to a behavioural screening form, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Global reports of sleep problems in 4.9% of the children were associated with a total SDQ score indicative of behaviour problems in 36% of the cases. Conversely, 15% of children with behaviour problems had global reports of sleep problems. Associations between specific sleeping features and different dimensions of behaviour and emotions were also explored. Hyperactivity was associated with tossing and turning during sleep, and with sleep walking; conduct problems were related to bedtime resistance; and emotional symptoms were associated with night terrors, difficulty falling asleep and daytime somnolence. Peer problems were associated with somewhat shorter total sleep time. Finally, a total SDQ score indicative of behaviour problems was associated with bedwetting, nightmares, tossing and turning during sleep and sleep walking, as well as with a slightly shorter total sleep time. We conclude that sleep and behaviour problems are associated in children, and that characteristic associations exist between particular sleep disturbances and specific dimensions of behaviour.
OBJECTIVE: To compare telephone interview screening for child psychiatric/neuropsychiatric disorders using the inventory of Autism-Tics, Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) with results from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). BACKGROUND: The A-TAC is a parent telephone interview focusing on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and co-existing problems, developed for lay interviewers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A-TAC telephone interviews and CBCL questionnaires were obtained from parents of 106 Swedish twin pairs aged 9 and 12 years. RESULTS: Correlations between A-TAC modules and CBCL scales aimed at measuring similar concepts were generally significant albeit modest, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.30 through 0.55. CONCLUSION: The A-TAC has convergent validity with the CBCL in several problem areas, but the A-TAC also provides more detailed and specific assessments of ASD symptoms and related neuropsychiatric problems.
RefSource: Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 May 4;64(3):146
A Danish translation of "The Child Behavior Checklist" (CBCL), developed by Achenbach and Edelbrock in Vermont, was standardized on 1,300 children aged between four and 17 years in the county of Fyn. The response rate was 61.4% and lowest among boys. Responders were compared to non-responders on different variables generated by the Danish Statistical Institute. No significant differences emerged across the two groups with respect to analysed confounders. We found a mean total CBCL score of 15-20 out of 232 possible points with considerable variation. The 95 percentile reflects a possible cut-off score for behavioural deviance or "psychiatric abnormality". This varied from 35 points in four to five years old girls to 58 points in six to ten years old boys. Parents reported hyperactivity and restlessness in 6.8% of six to ten year-old boys. Depression and sadness were reported in about 2% of all children six years or older. Six point three percent of all girls of 11-16 years selfreported obsessions. The 11-16 year-olds generally reported more symptomatic behaviour than their parents and teachers did about them.
We present epidemiological data from a multi-centre study on psychiatric symptoms among 6017 8-9-year-old children representing a total annual birth cohort (N = 60007) in Finland. The results are based on three questionnaires: the Rutter Parent Scale (RA2), the Rutter Teacher Scale (RB2), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). The proportion of children that scored above the cutoff points, indicating probable psychiatric disturbance, were 11.2% for the RA2, 13.9% for the RB2 and 6.9% for the CDI. Twenty-four percent of the subjects scored above the cutoff point on at least one of the questionnaires. Low family social status and disrupted family relations correlated strongly with high rates of symptoms in the children.
The aim of this study was to assess children's behavioural/emotional symptoms at school and to compare these symptoms of somatically healthy children with those of children with somatic illnesses or symptoms. The Rutter Teacher Questionnaire (RB2) was used for measuring psychiatric symptoms in 5813 children aged 8-9 years. The parents reported the somatic symptoms and illnesses of their children during the previous 12 months. One hundred and sixty one children had a marked or serious chronic illness, 292 had a mild chronic illness, and 92 had one or several symptoms. The findings suggest that boys with a marked or serious chronic somatic illness are prone to manifest psychiatric symptoms in their interactions with peers and teachers at school and that boys with a mild chronic illness have less psychiatric symptoms than healthy boys.
Recent studies based on the psychobiological theory of personality by Cloninger postulate a relationship between certain personality traits and various psychopathological manifestations. To test this theory, we administered the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Youth Self-Report to 188 male delinquents from a juvenile correction centre in Northern Russia, and to 111 age-matched male controls recruited from among schoolchildren. As assumed by previous studies, psychological symptoms were primarily positively correlated with harm avoidance and negatively correlated with self-directedness. At the same time, the higher levels of aggressive and delinquent behaviour were positively correlated with novelty-seeking and negatively correlated with co-operativeness. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed.
In the first phase of this follow-up study we investigated how the use of more than one language affects mental wellbeing and school achievement among 320 school-aged Finnish-Swedish re-migrant children. Now, in the second phase, we screened the same series of children 6 years after migration for psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms. Out of five groups distinguished in terms of patterns of language use, two had fared well and three showed evident vulnerability. Both successful groups were marked by consistent use of the two languages, Finnish and Swedish, whereas the risk groups were characterised by mixed use of languages before re-migration or substantial language shift after re-migration.