Accidental poisoning in pre-school children requiring hospital admission has increased sixfold from 1955 to 1975 in the Stockholm area. The mortality from this accident has decreased from 0.5 to less than 0.1 per 100 000 pre-school children in the whole of Sweden during the same period. Medical and psychosocial background factors were investigated in 104 consecutive in-patients (0--6 years old) with accidental poisoning and compared to an out-patient group, a group of patients who only had called the poison control centre, and a matched control group from Child Health Centres. There were no difference between the groups regarding health and history of earlier accidents except that 20--25% of the families of the poisoned children and 7% of the control families had called the Poison Control Centre before. Change of residence during the last 6 months was much commoner among families of poisoned children than of nonpoisoned. Other social stress factors were more common among in-patients than out-patients. The measures taken by the parents to combat the poisoning were adequate in most cases. The decrease in mortality inspite of the increase in potentially dangerous accidental poisonings may be attributed to a good knowledge among parents about adequate measures and where to seek advice resulting in early treatment, and to intensive care and antidote therapy.
BACKGROUND: A population-based case-control study was performed in Stockholm to assess the influence of air pollution on the occurrence of severe wheezing bronchitis in children. METHODS: The study included 197 children aged 4 months to 4 years, who were hospitalized because of breathing difficulties with wheezing, and 350 population controls. Information on potential risk factors for childhood wheezing and a residential history was obtained at home interview with parents. Outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at home addresses and day care centres from birth on were estimated from validated models, mainly using data on traffic intensity from municipal registers. RESULTS: The risk of wheezing bronchitis was related to time-weighted mean outdoor NO2 exposure in girls (P = 0.02), but not in boys. A gas stove in the home appeared to be a risk factor primarily for girls. All analyses controlled for parental asthma and maternal smoking, which were independent risk factors for wheezing bronchitis. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that exposure to combustion products containing NO2 may be of particular importance for the development of wheezing bronchitis in girls.
Sixty-five children born to women who all used amphetamine during pregnancy have been followed prospectively since birth 1976-77. They have been tested and examined at one, 4 and 8 years of age. In addition, information about the school situation was collected after 10 years. Twenty percent of the children were put in foster homes at birth, and after 10 years 70% were in foster homes. The children showed a normal intellectual capacity. However, at 10 years of age 8 children (12%) attended one class below what was normal for their biological age (normal in Sweden
Sixty-five children born to women who all abused amphetamine during pregnancy have been followed prospectively since their birth in 1976-77. At the age of 14-15 years, information about growth and school achievement was collected from school records. For comparison of school achievements the means of schoolmates were used, and for growth a group of Stockholm children born in the same year. By the age of 14 years only 14 children (22%) had stayed with their biological mothers for the whole period since birth. In the eighth grade, 10 (15%) were one grade lower than indicated by their biological age. The norm for Sweden is less than 5%. The means of the points in mathematics, Swedish language and sports were statistically below those of their classmates. At the age of 10 years the girls were significantly shorter and lighter than their peers born in 1976. At the age of 14 years the boys were statistically taller and heavier than their peers. It can be concluded that maternal amphetamine abuse during pregnancy will influence children at lest up to the age of 14-15 years even though many of them have been living in foster homes since a young age.
81 cases of tuberculosis infection (17) and disease (64), seen between 1977 and 1995 at St Göran's Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden are reviewed. The incidence of tuberculosis disease increased from 1 to 6/10(5) children/y. The increase was due to immigration from high-prevalence countries, with an incidence of 20/10(5) in a partly segregated suburb. Most of the children were foreign-born. Of the 31 0-4-y-old cases, 19 were born in Sweden, and 7 had received BCG vaccination. For Swedish-born children with Swedish-born parents, the incidence of tuberculosis disease remained stable at
To describe the development of words and sentences in Swedish children 16-28 months old, 900 parental reports on 336 children were analyzed. Subjects were randomly selected from the national birth register, and there was a response rate of 88%. The assessments were made using the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory--words and sentences (SECDI--w&s). Age-based norms for productive vocabulary, pragmatic skills, grammar skills, and maximum length of utterance (MaxLU) were determined. We describe the development of feedback morphemes, semantic categories, and single words and tasks. Correlation across measures was significant, and especially strong between vocabulary size and grammar skills. Optimized positive predictive values were high for 25 to 28 month predictions (71%-88%), and vocabulary scores were found to be of particular predictive importance. No significant gender differences were detected. The clinical relevance of the instrument is discussed.
OBJECTIVE: This paper provides an overview of pneumococcal infections in Swedish children. METHOD: Data supplied by the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI) provided information on invasive pneumococcal isolates and on isolates with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Disease burden was estimated from data collected in northern Stockholm and MalmÃ¶hus County. Results: Only 3-6% of the total number of invasive pneumococcal isolates came from children 0-15 years of age. Predominant serotypes in descending frequency were 7, 6, 14, and 23. Strains from all sources with reduced sensitivity to penicillin (MIC > or = 0.5 mg/l) were found in 3% of children and varied between 0.2% and 11%, with the highest value found in Southern Sweden (predominating strains were 9, 19, 15, 6, and 23). A 10-year review of all cases of meningitis in Northern Stockholm reflected an incidence of 10/100,000 (0-2 years) or 5.8/100,000 (0-5 years), with severe sequelae occurring in 20% of children. This information can be used to predict an annual incidence of 30 cases of meningitis in Sweden. CONCLUSION: The large proportion of serotype 7 among invasive isolates is distressing since this serotype is not represented in the present 7- and 9-valent protein-conjugated vaccines under development. However, the heptavalent vaccine, including serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F would (at a serotype level) provide coverage against 83% of the resistant isolates in Southern Sweden.