Health prevention seeks to avoid the onset of disease or symptoms by eliminating or at least minimizing environmental factors that increase the risk of illness. This article describes Ability OnLine, an innovative program designed to reduce the isolation young people can experience in a healthcare facility or when confined to their home. The electronic bulletin board is a friendly platform for disabled and chronically ill children to easily communicate with their peers and adult and teen mentors.
In the early 1970's British doctors (Beaumont et al) published clinical findings and concluded that anorexia nervosa is a disease occurring in both sexes. Until then it had been considered a female disease only. A number of studies have reported a rather poor outcome for boys and men. In a Danish study infertility was noted in affected men. The aim of this study is to describe typical arrays of clinical data in order to assess attitudes and values concerning the effect of treatment on 28 teenagers out of a total of 48 children and adolescents. A sociometric questionnaire was used to assess the youngsters' knowledge of their disease, their opinions concerning the competence of staff, their feelings concerning treatment, including parental involvement in therapy and medications used, as well as their opinions concerning the results of treatment. All boys are alive (in 1999), 19 years after falling ill. The boys were much more reluctant to accept inpatient care than were the girls, who seem to show greater autonomy. Participants' final appraisal of treatment is slightly positive, whereas in the hypothetical situation that a friend might fall ill with an eating disorder, a sizeable majority would recommend contact with child psychiatry.
Behavior of 535 four-year-old children was investigated in relation to their earlier experiences of hospitalization and day care. Results show significant behavioral differences between hospitalized and nonhospitalized children who had attended day care, none between those who had not. Repeated hospital admission increased the behavioral differences in the day care children.
The aim of this study was to investigate how small boys between 3 and 6 years of age describe bodily and verbal expressions of postoperative symptoms. The data collection was carried out at a large general hospital in Sweden and included both participant observations and semistructured interviews. The results provided a description of how 3- to 6-year-old boys bodily and verbally express postoperative symptoms. The results also showed that small children have difficulties in distinguishing pain, nausea, and anxiety and that postoperative discomfort was experienced in many different ways.
This study set out to explore, from the family's point of view, ways in which nursing staff can promote family health during the child's hospital stay.
Having a child in hospital is a major source of stress and anxiety for the whole family. Earlier studies have described parental coping strategies, ways to strengthen those strategies and to support parental participation in child care, but no one has studied the promotion of family health during the child's hospitalization from the family's point of view.
Interviews were conducted in 2002 with 29 families who had a child with a chronic illness which were receiving or had received treatment on the paediatric wards of two Finnish hospitals.
Data analysis was based on the grounded theory method, proceeding to the stage of axial coding. Data collection and analysis phases proceeded simultaneously.
Five domains were distinguished in the promotion of family health: (1) reinforcing parenthood, (2) looking after the child's welfare, (3) sharing the emotional burden, (4) supporting everyday coping and (5) creating a confidential care relationship.
The results strengthen the knowledge base of family nursing by showing how nursing staff can promote family health during the child's hospital stay.
The results have a number of practical applications for nursing, both for clinical practice and research. The results can be used in paediatric hospital wards caring for chronically ill children and their families. The five domains of family health promotion described here should be tested in other paediatric wards and in other geographical locations.
Since 1979, the Child Life Department of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario has provided 75 hours per week of Child Life intervention for children and parents in the emergency department. Factors that would influence a child's ability to master an emergency experience have been identified through a review of the literature. The protocol for Child Life intervention in frequent emergency situations is described. Practical approaches to Child Life programs in Emergency and evaluation of effects of Child Life intervention are discussed.