The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from Danish broiler chickens since both sick and presumably healthy animals were investigated. Isolates (n=279) collected from chickens from 25 farms were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with the restriction enzyme SmaI. A high genetic diversity was found. Isolates with different PFGE types were toxin typed by PCR and all were found to be of type A. The results showed that healthy broiler chickens carried several different C. perfringens clones both within a flock and even within individual birds, whereas flocks suffering from necrotic enteritis (NE) or cholangio-hepatitis carried only one or two clones.
The causes of the simultaneous rise of salmonellosis morbidity induced by S. enteritidis among the population of three towns in the Perm region were studied. The study revealed the leading role of eggs and chicken meat as factors contributing to the transfer of this infection to the population of different territories, commonly supplied with the products of one poultry plant. The contamination of eggs and chickens with S. enteritidis occurred at the plant due to Salmonella infection of chickens, parallel with the use of nonbalanced mixed fodder, originally intended for feeding swine. Analysis of the epidemic and epizootic processes of Salmonella infection in this epidemic situation made it possible to reliably establish the factors contributing to the transfer of the infective agent and the site of contamination.
The Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in broilers was implemented in May 2001 with the objective of reducing human exposure to Campylobacter through Norwegian broilers. From each flock, samples collected at the farm about one week prior to slaughter, and then again at the slaughter plant, are examined for the presence of Campylobacter. All farmers with positive flocks are followed up with bio-security advice. Sampling of broiler products at retail level is also included in the Action Plan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing sampling and culturing methods of the Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in broilers. The material collected was pooled faecal samples, pooled cloacae samples and caecae samples from individuals. The highest number of positives, from culturing of the pooled faecal samples, the pooled cloacae swabs and the caecae swabs from individuals, were obtained at incubation temperature 41.5 degrees C. When comparing the results at incubation temperature 37 and 41.5 degrees C, the faecal samples from the farms demonstrated a high concordance, with a kappa value of 0.88. The results from culturing cloacae swabs and caecae samples from slaughter plant level at two temperatures did not agree very well with a kappa value of 0.21 and moderate value of 0.57, respectively, but were both disconcordant at a level of 0.05. Modelling farm level data indicated that if increasing the number of pooled samples per flock from two (in existing regime) to three, the flock sensitivity increases from 89% to 95%. Modelling of slaughter plant data indicated that three pooled cloacae swabs are needed to identify 90% of the positive flocks. The results from the modelling of caecae data indicated that samples from seven individuals are sufficient to identify 90% of the positive flocks and caecae samples could thus be an alternative to cloacae sampling at slaughter plant level.
In May/June 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness occurred among company employees in Copenhagen. Cases were reported from seven of eight companies that received food from the same catering kitchen. Stool specimens from three patients from two companies were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. We performed a retrospective cohort study among employees exposed to canteen food in the three largest companies to identify the source of the outbreak and to prevent further spread. Using self-administered questionnaires we collected information on disease, days of canteen food eaten and food items consumed. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Questionnaires were returned by 295/348 (85%) employees. Of 247 employees who ate canteen food, 79 were cases, and the attack rate (AR) was 32%. Consuming canteen food on 25 May was associated with illness (AR 75/204, RR=3.2, 95%CI 1.3-8.2). Consumption of chicken salad on this day, but not other types of food, was associated with illness (AR=43/97, RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.3-4.1). Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood of cross-contamination from raw chicken to the chicken salad during storage. This is the first recognised major Campylobacter outbreak associated with contaminated chicken documented in Denmark. It is plausible that food handling practices contributed to transmission, and awareness of safe food handling and storage has since been raised among kitchen staff. The low number of positive specimens accrued in this outbreak suggests a general underascertainment of adult cases in the laboratory reporting system by a factor of 20.
Erratum In: Euro Surveill. 2006 May;11(5):1 p following 139
Antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter jejuni collected from the environment outside four broiler houses (n = 63) and from the environment inside these broiler houses (including broiler droppings) (n = 36) from May to September 2004 was studied and compared with isolates from Norwegian broilers analyzed within the frame of the Norwegian monitoring program of antimicrobial resistance in feed, food, and animals (NORM-VET) in 2004 (n = 75). The MICs of oxytetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, and nalidixic acid were obtained by the broth microdilution method VetMIC. The present study, which to our knowledge is the first Norwegian study on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from the environment of broiler houses, revealed a very low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni from the broilers and broiler house environments studied. All isolates originating from the four broiler houses studied were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, except for one isolate from the outdoor environment (courtyard soil), which was resistant to oxytetracycline (MIC, 8 mg/liter). For the isolates from broilers (NORM-VET), low prevalences of resistance to oxytetracycline (1.3%) and ampicillin (4%) were observed. No quinolone resistance was observed. The results for the broiler isolates are in agreement with the earlier findings of a very low prevalence of resistance in Campylobacter from broilers in Norway, which reflects the low usage of antimicrobials in Norwegian broiler production. Furthermore, the present data are in accordance with antimicrobial susceptibility data for C. jejuni from domestically acquired human cases.
To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human campylobacteriosis whose onset was within approximately 2 weeks from the date of processing. When there was genetic identity between broiler isolates and human isolates within the appropriate time frame, a retail product lot was classified as implicated in human disease. According to the results of this analysis, there were multiple clusters of human disease linked to the same process lot or lots. Implicated and nonimplicated retail product lots were compared for four lot descriptors: lot size, prevalence, mean contamination, and maximum contamination (as characterized by direct rinse plating). For retail product distributed fresh, Mann-Whitney U tests showed that implicated product lots had significantly (P = 0.0055) higher mean contamination than nonimplicated lots. The corresponding median values were 3.56 log CFU/carcass for implicated lots and 2.72 log CFU/carcass for nonimplicated lots. For frozen retail product, implicated lots were significantly (P = 0.0281) larger than nonimplicated lots. When the time frame was removed, retail product lots containing Campylobacter flaA SVR genotypes also seen in human disease had significantly higher mean and maximum contamination numbers than lots containing no genotypes seen in human disease for both fresh and frozen product. Our results suggest that cases of broiler-borne campylobacteriosis may occur in clusters and that the differences in mean contamination levels may provide a basis for regulatory action that is more specific than a presence-absence standard.
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 May;73(10):3123-3617369342
To investigate feed as a source for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler chickens, we compared antimicrobial drug-resistant E. coli from broiler feed and broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant human clinical isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Feed was implicated as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant broiler-derived E. coli and broilers as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant human-derived E. coli.
Independent risk factors for campylobacteriosis (eating raw, rare, or undercooked poultry; consuming raw milk or raw milk products; and eating chicken or turkey in a commercial establishment) account for
Cites: Can Commun Dis Rep. 2000 Oct 15;26(20):170-311211701
We describe the observed relationship of campylobacter in poultry operations to human cases in a closed environment. During 1999 in Iceland, domestic cases of campylobacteriosis reached peak levels at 116/100,000 and in 2000 dropped to 33/100,000. Approximately 62% of broiler carcass rinses were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in 1999. During 2000, only 15% of the broiler flocks tested Campylobacter spp. positive. In 2000, carcasses from flocks which tested positive on the farms at 4 weeks of age were subsequently frozen prior to distribution. We suggest that public education, enhanced on-farm biological security measures, carcass freezing and other unidentified factors, such as variations in weather, contributed to the large reduction in poultry-borne campylobacteriosis. There is no immediate basis for assigning credit to any specific intervention. We continue to seek additional information to understand the decline in campylobacteriosis and to create a risk assessment model for Campylobacter spp. transmission through this well defined system.
A selection of plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolates carrying blaCMY-2 from Swedish broilers were characterized to establish their relatedness to and a possible overlap with human clinical E. coli isolates. The results showed diversity among the E. coli isolated from broilers, indicating that the spread in the population was not due to one strain. However, only one type of plasmid belonging to replicon type incK was identified. Furthermore, there were no indications of spread of blaCMY-2 E. coli isolates from broilers to human clinical settings, although Swedish broilers may be a source of blaCMY-2 and/or the plasmid carrying blaCMY-2 .